barcode reader asp.net web application Figure 21.14 The PIC microcontroller based analog clock is an interesting conversation piece. in Software

Encoder QR Code JIS X 0510 in Software Figure 21.14 The PIC microcontroller based analog clock is an interesting conversation piece.

Figure 21.14 The PIC microcontroller based analog clock is an interesting conversation piece.
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Figure 21.15 The simple PIC microcontroller clock uses the output from the I/O pins to select the demultiplexors that are used to drive the appropriate LED.
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TABLE 21.6
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CLOCK BILL OF MATERIALS DESCRIPTION
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U1 U2 U3 U7 X1 CR1 CR2 D1 D72 D73 D84 R1 R2 R3 R74 C1 C2 C3 C8 C9, C11 J1 SW1 Battery Misc
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5-V regulator in a TO-220 package
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PIC16LF84 04/P 74LS154 four to 16 demultiplexor 32.768-kHz watch crystal 1N914 silicon diode 5-mm-diameter red LEDs 5-mm-diameter red LEDs used if hours consist of two LEDs each 10 k , 1/4 W 220- , 1/4 W 10- F, 35-V electrolytic 0.1- F, 16-V tantalum 27 pF any type 2.5-mm power plug Momentary-on push-button switch 2.8-V lithium PC backup battery Prototype board, wire wrap sockets, wire, +7-V output PC power supply
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PORTB and PORTA or the PIC16LF84, respectively. The bill of materials for the analog clock is listed in Table 21.6. For my prototype, I point-to-point wired the circuit. For your version, I recommend that you either design an embedded PCB for the circuit or wire-wrap it. Point-to-point wiring took me about a day s worth of effort on this circuit. If you are going to wirewrap the circuit, I recommend that you wrap directly to the LED posts this will save you a lot of time and make your life a lot easier. I speci ed a low-voltage PIC microcontroller for this circuit because I ve included a simple battery backup circuit using a 2.8-V lithium PC battery to make sure that the time isn t lost in the case of occasional power outages. If power is ever lost to the circuit (I powered my prototype from a wall-mounted ac/dc power adapter), the lithium battery will keep the PIC microcontroller running until power is restored. The lithium battery will run the PIC microcontroller for a very long time because the PIC microcontroller s current consumption is on the order of microamps, and the 2.1 V of the PIC power output from the PIC microcontroller is insuf cient to cause a parasitic drain in the 74LS154s.
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MID-RANGE DEVICES
To keep the time, I allow TMR0 to run continuously with a divide by 64 prescaler that over ows once every second. In the software, the T0IF bit is polled continually, and if it is set, then it is reset, and the button is checked for being pressed; if it isn t, the seconds counter is updated with, if necessary, the minutes and hours. The entire application is quite simple and could be written out in pseudocode as
main() { int int int Seconds = 0; Minutes = 0; TimeInc = 1; // Simple PIC microcontroller Clock
OPTION_REG = TMR0 Internal Clock/TMR0 Prescaler/Prescaler = 64; PORTB TRISB PORTA TRISA = = = = 0x0E0; 0; 0; 0x010; // // // // // // PORTB outputs Minutes PORTB All Output PORTA is the Hours Counter RA4 is an Input Pin Wait 1 Second before Starting Loop Forever
TMR0 = 0; while (1 == 1) {
while ((INTCON & (1 << T0IF)) == 0); T0IF = 0; // One Second has Gone By if (RA4 == 0) { // The Button has been Pressed TimeUpdate(TimeInc); // Increment the Time TimeInc = ((TimeInc << 1) + 1) ^ 0x03F; Seconds = 0; } else { // Update the Second Counter TimeInc = 1; // Button isn t pressed Seconds = Seconds + 1; if (Seconds > 59) { // Minute has gone by Timeupdate(TimeInc); Seconds = 0; } } } } // End Simple PIC microcontroller Clock
This code actually has been updated for this edition of the book and uses the clock button time-set algorithm I rst came up with for Handbook of Microcontrollers. When the button is rst pressed (it is polled once per second), the time is incremented by 1 minute. After incrementing the time, the increment value is shifted up by 1 and has 1 added to it to 0x03F (63 decimal). When 63 decimal is added to the Minutes, it will roll over
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