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again to the delay. I ve done this program many times before, although not on the PIC18F1320 that I use in this chapter. The basic program (found in the C18\example\ SimApp folder) is:
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#include <p18f1320.h> // SimApp - Initial PIC18 Simulator Application // // 07.03.21 - myke predko int i; void main(void) { TRISBbits.TRISB0 = 0; while (1 == 1) { for (i = 0; i < 32000; i++); PORTBbits.RB0 ^= 1; } // endwhile } // End
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This is a typical C program for toggling the state of an LED driver pin and I expected it to work without any problems. The use of the TRISB and PORTB bits are a bit unusual. Before writing the program, I checked the p18f1320.h le and got the pin definitions from there. To make sure I wouldn t have any surprises, I created the project shown in Fig. 3.19, set a breakpoint at PORTBbits.RB0, clicked the Run button (shown in Fig. 3.20), and expected the RB0 pin to toggle each time through the loop unfortunately, this didn t happen. Before I explain what I did to x the problem, I want to explain how the simulator was enabled and what the buttons shown in Fig. 3.20 do, and show you how to set breakpoints in the program. Once an MPLAB IDE project has been created (which is described for C18 projects at the end of the chapter), to enable the simulator, click on the Debugger pull-down menu, click on Select Tool, followed by MPLAB SIM. When this is done, the simulator buttons shown in Fig. 3.20 will appear on the IDE toolbar. When the buttons are displayed, you are now ready to simulate (or, if you selected one of the other tools such as ICD 2, debug or run an emulator). The simulator buttons are the basic controls needed to reset, execute, single-step, or step over or out of the current subroutine. The Run button does just that, it executes the program and will continue to until it encounters a breakpoint, the Pause button is pressed, or an execution error (such as a stack over ow) is encountered. In early versions of MPLAB IDE, there was a problem with running the application either a speed up program would have to be running in the background or the user would have to move the mouse continually to get full speed out of the simulator. I m mentioning this because you may see some references to this requirement in some PIC microcontroller resources and it is no longer required in the latest versions of the program.
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Simulator Buttons
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The MPLAB IDE desktop with the simulator enabled.
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Run Reset Pause Execute Out of Subroutine Animate Execute Around a Subroutine Execute Every Statement
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The MPLAB IDE simulator control buttons.
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Along with running the application at full speed, you can also animate it, which will allow the program to single-step through at a speed that should be observable by a human (the speeds are selectable from the Debugger pull-down menu, selecting the Settings dialog box). The Debugger menu provides you with a number of parameters for the basic functions as well as some additional useful features that are useful that are not available from the seven basic buttons. When you are running the application, you can stop it at any time by clicking on the Pause button. This button just pauses the execution of the program and does not reset it or start again from the beginning; you can resume execution right at the point where the program paused. There are three single-step execution options which consist of basic single-stepping and single-stepping until a subroutine call is encountered and then execute through the subroutine and stop at the instruction after the call instruction as well as executing at full speed until the next subroutine return instruction is executed. These buttons allow you to work through the application code surprisingly quickly and ef ciently. Finally, there is a Reset button, which returns the simulated PIC microcontroller to its power on state and startup vector address. For the most part, you will not require any of the additional capabilities available from the Debugger menu. To set a breakpoint in the program, simply double-click the space to the left of the source code line. When you do this, a stop sign icon will appear in the space. Now the application execution will stop when a breakpoint is encountered. To remove the breakpoint, simply right-click on the stop sign and then click on Remove Breakpoint. As a nal note, if you change any of the source code, you will not be able to continue with the simulation (or debugging or emulation). To resume these operations, you will have to rebuild the application and then restart it from the beginning. MPLAB IDE is actually pretty good at keeping track of breakpoints, so when you add or delete lines, you will see that the breakpoints will follow the program statements they were associated to, not be locked to their line numbers. Going back to the SimApp.c C18 application, when I simulated it I found that the RB0 bit would not toggle it always stayed at 0. By reading the datasheet, I discovered that the RB0 bit (along with some others) is initially set to be an analog input; to change the pins operation to digital I/O, I had to add the line ADCON1 = 0x70 before the setting of TRISB pin zero. If I had not used the simulator to nd this problem, I would have been stuck at rst guessing at whether or not the PIC microcontroller was executing (which means checking clocks, power, and reset) followed by guessing at what the problem is. By using the simulator, I could see that the RB0 pin never changed state so I could concentrate my research on this pin and I discovered that the problem was actually that I was attempting to write a digital value to an analog input pin the ADCON1 = 0x70 statement changes RB0, RB1, and RB4 to digital I/O pins. The three operations, enabling the simulator, using the seven simulator buttons on the IDE toolbar, and adding or removing breakpoints are all you have to know to start simulating your PIC microcontroller applications. This is not to say that you will be ef cient at nding bugs right from the start, but you will be quite a bit faster than if you were trying to gure out the problem from the behavior of the application.
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