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If you were to pull off the plastic packaging (called encapsulant) around a microcontroller to see the chip inside, you would see a rectangle of silicon similar to the one in Fig. 1.1, with each of the functions provided within the chip being visibly different from
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Figure 1.1 Block diagram with the basic features that can be expected in an embedded microcontroller.
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the surrounding circuitry. The reason why you would be able to tell the function of each block is due to the speci c circuitry used for each block; random processor logic looks different from neat arrays of memory circuits, and it looks different from the large transistors used for providing large current I/O functions. Along with the basic circuitry presented in the block diagram of Fig. 1.1, most modern microcontrollers have many of following features built into the chips:
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Nonvolatile (available on power-up) program memory programming circuitry Interrupt capability (from a variety of sources) Analog input and output (I/O), both PWM and variable direct current (DC) I/O Serial I/O (synchronous and asynchronous data transfers) Bus/external memory interfaces (for RAM and ROM) Built-in monitor/debugger program
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All these features increase the exibility of the device considerably and not only make developing all applications easier, but allow the creation of applications that might not be possible otherwise. Most of these options enhance the function of different I/O pins and do not affect their basic operation, and they can usually be disabled, restoring the I/O pins function to straight digital input and output. Most modern devices are fabricated using CMOS technology, which decreases the current chip s size and the power requirements considerably over early devices reliance on NMOS or HexMOS technologies. For most modern microcontrollers, the current required is anywhere from a few microamperes (uA) in Sleep mode to up to about a milliampere (mA) for a microcontroller running at 20 MHz. A smaller chip size means that along with less power being required for the chip, more chips can be built on a single wafer. The more chips that are built on a wafer, the lower the unit price is. Note that in CMOS circuitry, positive power is labeled Vdd and negative power or ground is Vss. This corresponds to TTL s Vcc and Gnd connections. This can be confusing to people new to electronics; in this book, I will be indicating power as being either positive ( ) or at ground level and use the manufacturer s power pin labels in the schematics. Maximum speeds for the devices are typically in the low tens of megahertz (MHz), with the primary limiting factor the access time of the memory built onto the chips. For the typical embedded microcontroller application, this is usually not an issue. What is
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an issue is the ability to provide relatively complex interfaces for applications using simple microcontroller inputs and outputs. The execution cycles and the delay for software routines limit the MCU s ability to process complex input and output waveforms. Later in the book, I will discuss the advanced PIC microcontroller hardware features that provide interfacing functions as well as bit-banging algorithms for simulating the interfaces while still leaving enough processor cycles to provide the other application operations required. Despite the tremendous advantages that a microcontroller has with built-in program storage and internal variable RAM, there are times (and applications) where you will want to add external (both program and variable) memory to your microcontroller. There are three basic ways of doing this. The rst is to add memory devices to the microcontroller as if it were a microprocessor. Many microcontrollers are designed with built-in hardware to access external devices like a microprocessor (with the memory interface circuitry added to the chip as shown in Fig. 1.2) with the classic example of this being the Intel 8051. A typical application for a microcontroller with external memory is as a hard disk cache/buffer that buffers and distributes large amounts of data. The 8051 s bus designs of the 8051 allows the addition of up to 64K as well as 64K variable RAM. An interesting feature of the 8051 is that internal nonvolatile memory can be disabled, allowing the 8051 chip to be used even if it was programmed with incorrect or downlevel programs. The second method of adding external memory is to simulate microprocessor bus operations with the chip s I/O pins. This method tends to be much slower than having a microcontroller that can access external devices directly, like the 8051. While it is not recommended to simulate a microprocessor bus for memory devices, it isn t unusual to see a microcontroller simulating a microprocessor bus to allow access to a specialized peripheral I/O chip. There are cases where a speci c chip will provide exactly the function needed and it is designed to be controlled by a microprocessor. The last method is to use a bus protocol that has been designed to provide additional memory and I/O capabilities to microcontrollers. The two wire inter-inter computer
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Figure 1.2 Block diagram of a microcontroller with built-in circuitry to access external memory devices.
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