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(I2C) protocol is a very commonly used bus standard that provides this capability. This standard allows I/O devices and multiple microcontrollers to communicate with each other without complex bus protocols.
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In this book, I use the term application to collectively describe the hardware circuitry and software required to develop a microcontroller-based circuit. I think it is important to note that a microcontroller project is based on multiple development efforts (for circuitry and software) and not the result of a single discipline. In this section, I will introduce you to the ve elements of a microcontroller project and explain some of the terms and concepts relating to them. The ve aspects of every microcontroller project are:
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Microcontroller and support circuitry Project power Application software User interface (UI) Device input/output (I/O)
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These elements are shown working together in Fig. 1.3. The microcontroller with its internal features (processor, clocking, variable memory, reset/support, and application program memory) is simply the complete embedded microcontroller chip. Other than the chip itself, most microcontroller circuitry just requires power along with a decoupling capacitor and often a reset circuit and an oscillator to run. The design of the PIC MCU (as with most other microcontrollers) makes the speci cation of power and external parts almost trivial; chances are, other than power and a decoupling capacitor, you will not require any other parts to support the embedded microcontroller in the application.
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Microcontroller Device I/O Processor Clocking Reset/ Support Variable Memory Non-Volatile Application Program Memory
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User I/F
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Figure 1.3 Embedded microcontroller application block diagram showing ve development project aspects.
In the second edition of this book, I took a fair amount of effort to ensure that the voltage levels of the power applied to the PIC MCUs were within relatively narrow ranges. Most new PIC MCUs (as well as other manufacturers chips) are now able to run within a surprisingly wide range of voltages (from 2 to 6 volts), which will allow you to use simple alkaline batteries and dispense with voltage regulators for most applications. A decoupling capacitor usually 0.01 F to 0.1 F connected across positive power (Vdd) and ground (Vss) should always be wired to the power connection of each chip in your application circuitry, with one pin as close to the positive power input pin as possible. Decoupling capacitors are used to minimize the effects on the chips of rapid changes in power levels and current availability caused by other chips in the circuit switching and drawing more power. A decoupling capacitor can be thought of as a lter that smoothes out the rough spots of the power supply and provides additional current for high-load situations on the part. As I will show later in the book, having a decoupling capacitor is critical with the PIC MCU and should never be left out of an application s circuit. The purpose of the reset circuit is to hold the processor within the microcontroller until it can be reliably assumed that the input power has reached an acceptable level for the chip to run and any initial oscillations have completed. Many embedded microcontrollers (including different PIC MCU part numbers) provide the reset circuitry internally or they can be as simple as just a pull-up (resistor connected to positive power). The reset circuitry can become more complex, providing the capability of holding the microcontroller reset if power droops below a certain point (often called brown out ). For most applications, the reset circuitry of an embedded microcontroller can be very simple, but when the operation of the device is critical, care must be taken to ensure the microcontroller will only operate when power and other conditions are within speci c parameters. For any computer processor to run, it requires a clock to provide timing for each instruction operation. This clock is provided by an oscillator built into the PICmicro, which uses a crystal, ceramic resonator, or an RC oscillator to provide the time base of the PICmicro s clocks circuitry. Many modern microcontrollers have built-in RC oscillators to provide the basic clock signal for the application. When you are rst starting to learn about embedded microcontrollers, a nice feature is the built-in oscillator, as adding a crystal or ceramic resonator can be a bit nicky and will give you an additional variable to check if your circuit doesn t seem to be running. The user interface is critical to the success of a microcontroller application. In this book, I will be showing you number of ways of passing data between a user and a PIC microcontroller. Some of these methods may seem frivolous or trivial, but having an easy to use interface between your application and the user is a differentiator in today s marketplace. Along with information on working with different user I/O circuitry and devices, I will also be giving you some of my thoughts on the philosophy of what is appropriate for users. Device I/O is really what microcontroller applications are all about. The I/O pins can be interfaces to strictly logic devices, analog signals, or complex device interfaces.
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