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When we get really serious about running motors with microprocessors, what we are really talking about is running motors that have optical encoders attached to them. This arrangement allows us to control the speed of the motor and to know and control its absolute position. This is what we need to get the really fast changes in speed and position required to build positioning-dependent machines such as plotters, laser cutters, robots, and CNC machines. For the hobbyist, the needs of the robot are more fully met by this arrangement than can be met by any other type of motor-control arrangement inexpensively. Our interest is in the control of small motors that have relatively coarse encoders attached to them. The encoders provide a two-phase signal, where one phase leads the other by 90 degrees in a 360 degree cycle. The usual signal arrangement is two square waves, as illustrated in Figure 28-2. A third channel can provide an indexing pulse during each revolution. This signal can be used to position the motor exactly within any one revolution of motion. Having one repeatable starting position allows all other motor positions to be duplicated exactly. The encoders we are using do not have this third signal. A micro-switch or other device has to be used with the encoder to identify the revolution during which we want to read the index pulse. This means the micro-switch must identify the same revolution every time and the encoder should be set to a position that represents approximately half a revoluFigure 28-2 Quadrature encoder tion of the motor to ensure a repeatable zero signals. One signal leads the other by 90 degrees in a 360-degree cycle. position. It s a bit tricky, but you must make sure you understand why this is the case.
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The Propeller chip s ability to address a motor-control process in a parallel environment makes managing the motor control process much easier. We can assign each of the following separable processes within the motor-control process to one of the cogs:
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A cog to read the encoders so we can keep track of where the motor is. A cog to manage the LCD so we can see what is going on. A cog to read the input potentiometers so we can play with two variables in real time. A cog to manage motor power so we can vary the power to the motor as we need to.
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Here are the identifications of the Propeller pins we are going to use to connect our motor to the Propeller in these experiments. The encoder signals will be on P0 and P1:
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The motor amplifier will be connected as follows:
Brake P2 PWM P3 Direction P4
Our amplifier will be one-half of the two-axis Xavien amplifier. We will read the two potentiometers as follows: Pins P19 to P22 will be connected to the MCP3202 A-to-D converter. On the converter, we will read line 0 and line 1:
Potentiometer 1 Potentiometer 2
line 0 line 1
The liquid crystal display will be connected to lines P12 to P18 with a standard 4-bit communications protocol. We will connect two LEDs to lines 26 and 27 in case we need them to help us look into what is going on in our system at critical junctures. Not all the lines mentioned will be used for all the experiments. However, this will be our standard setup for playing with an encoded motor, so we are setting it up this way up front.
The Goal
The goal is to tell the motor how far we want it to move and how long we want the move to take and we want to have the system do it all automatically. The program will calculate everything needed to achieve this goal. How long the ramp up and ramp down will take can be problematic if we want the times calculated automatically, so let s agree that we will accelerate for 25% of the time and decelerate for the same amount of time so we have something concrete to work with. (This is problematic because when you are running more than one motor and each one is following its own velocity path, how and when to speed up or slow down and still stay in sync with the other motors in the system gets complicated. Consider a move where one motor moves 1031 counts and the other moves 13 encoder counts. How should this situation be handled for the coordinated move to be as perfect as possible ) A discussion of motor control is never complete without a discussion of the PID loop. We will develop some simple programs that help us understand what can be done, but first we need to understand a bit more about the PID loop.
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