reading barcode Figure 24-4: Comanche server information in Software

Draw QR Code in Software Figure 24-4: Comanche server information

Figure 24-4: Comanche server information
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The main Comanche window has a sidebar that shows a tree of Apache servers, and the main panel shows the items in the selected entry in the tree (see Figure 24-5). The main tree entry will display the Apache Web server and under it, the Red Hat Apache server. Here you will find entries for Server Management and the Default Web server, the primary Web server. To perform actions on any of these entries, select the entry and then select the list of actions on the main panel. The Server Management entry displays a list of items to start, stop, restart, and query the server status, as well as to save your configuration. Any changes you make with Comanche are not made in your Apache configuration files until you explicitly save the configuration. Be sure to save before you quit. When you save your configuration, this version overwrites your httpd.conf file.
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Figure 24-5: The Comanche Apache configuration tool To configure your Default Web server, click on it and then select the default configuration entry on the mail panel. This opens a dialog box like that shown in Figure 24-5. If you double-click the Default Web server icon, the tree expands to list server locations. These are the root directory, your Web server home directory, the CGI program directory, and the documentation directory. To create new directories, right-click the Web server entry and select the New item in the menu that pops up. Initially, only one server is listed, labeled Default Web Server. If you add virtual hosts, they are listed at the same level. To create a virtual host, right-click the Apache Server entry and then select New on the pop-up menu. This activates a drop-down menu with a Virtual Host entry. Select the Virtual Host entry to create your virtual host. To configure a directory, right-click its entry and select the Properties item from the pop-up menu displayed. This opens a new window for configuring your selection, similar to the one shown in Figure 24-5. The window is divided into sidebar and main panel: The sidebar shows a tree of configuration items and the main panel displays the configuration dialog windows for these items. For example, by selecting the Basic configuration entry, you can display text boxes for entering items such as the document root directory and the name of your server. Other entries let you set server options, proxy settings, and indexing formats.
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Web server security deals with two different tasks: protecting your Web server from unauthorized access, and providing security for transactions carried out between a Web browser client and your Web server. To protect your server from unauthorized access, you use
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a proxy server such as Squid. Squid is a GNU proxy server often used with Apache on Linux systems. (See 28 for a detailed explanation of the Squid server.) Apache itself has several modules that provide security capabilities. These include mod_access for mandatory controls; mod_auth, mod_auth_db, mod_auth_digest, and mod_auth_dbm, which provide authentication support; and mod_auth_anon for anonymous FTP-like logging (see previous sections on access control and authentication). To secure transmissions, you need to perform three tasks. You have to verify identities, check the integrity of the data, and insure the privacy of the transmission. To verify the identities of the hosts participating in the transmission, you perform authentication procedures. To check the integrity of the data you add digital signatures containing a digest value for the data. The digest value is a value that uniquely represents the data. Finally, to secure the privacy of the transmission, you encrypt it. Transactions between a browser and your server can then be encrypted, with the browser and your server alone able to decrypt the transmissions. The protocol most often used to implement secure transmissions with Linux Apache Web servers is the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol, which was originally developed by Netscape for secure transactions on the Web. Like the Secure Shell (SSH) described in 40 and GPG discussed in 6, SSL uses a form of public- and private-key encryption for authentication. Data is encrypted with the public key but can only be decrypted with the private key. Once authenticated, an agreedupon cipher is used to encrypt the data. Digital signatures encrypt an MD5 digest value for data to ensure integrity. Authentication is carried out with the use of certificate authority. Certificates identify the different parties in a secure transmission, verifying that they are who they say they are. A Web server will have a certificate verifying its identity, verifying that it is the server it claims to be. The browser contacting the server will also have a certificate identifying who it is. These certificates are, in turn, both signed by a certificate authority, verifying that they are valid certificates. A certificate authority is an independent entity that both parties trust. A certificate contains the public key of the particular server or browser it is given to, along with the digital signature of the certificate authority and identity information such as the name of the user or company running the server or browser. The effectiveness of a certificate depends directly on the reliability of the certificate authority issuing it. To run a secure Web server on the Internet, you should obtain a certificate from a noted certificate authority such as Verisign. A commercial vendor such as Stronghold can do this for you. Many established companies may already maintain their own certificate authority, securing transmissions within their company networks. An SSL session is set up using a handshake sequence in which the server and browser are authenticated by exchanging certificates, a cipher is agreed upon to encrypt the transmissions, and the kind of digest integrity check is chosen. There is also a choice in the kind of public key encryption used for authentication, either RSA or DSA. For each session a unique session key is set up that the browser and server use. A free version of SSL called OpenSSL is available for use with Apache (see It is based on SSLeay from Eric A. Young and Tim J. Hudson. However, U.S. government restrictions prevent the Apache Web server from being freely distributed with SSL capabilities built-in. You have to separately obtain SSL and update your Apache server to incorporate this capability.
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The U.S. government maintains export restrictions on encryption technology over 40 bits. SSL, however, supports a number of ciphers using 168-, 128-, and 40-bit keys (128 is considered secure, and so by comparison the exportable 40-bit versions are useless). This means that if Apache included SSL, it could not be distributed outside the U.S. Outside the U.S., however, there are projects that do distribute SSL for Apache using OpenSSL. These are free for noncommercial use in the U.S., though export restrictions apply. The Apache-SSL project freely distributes Apache with SSL built-in, apache+ssl. You can download this from their Web site at (though there are restrictions on exporting encryption technology, there is none on importing it). In addition, the mod_ssl project provides an SSL module with patches that you can use to update your Apache Web server to incorporate SSL ( mod_ssl is free for both commercial and noncommercial use under an Apache style license. Red Hat includes the mod_ssl module with its distribution in the mod_ssl package.
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