asp.net scan barcode Part VI: System Administration in Software

Encoder QR Code in Software Part VI: System Administration

Part VI: System Administration
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28: Basic System Administration 29: Configuration Tools and Boot Management 30: Managing Users 31: Software Management 32: File System Administration 33: Devices and Printers 34: Kernel Administration 35: The X Window System and XFree86
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28: Basic System Administration
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Linux is designed to serve many users at the same time, as well as to provide an interface among the users and the computer with its storage media, such as hard disks and tapes. Users have their own shells through which they interact with the operating system, but you may need to configure the operating system itself in different ways. You may need to add new users, printers, and even file systems. Such operations come under the heading of system administration. The person who performs such actions is referred to as either a system administrator or a superuser. In this sense, two types of interaction with Linux exist: regular users' interaction and the superuser, who performs system administration tasks. The chapters in the "Administration" section cover operations such as changing system runlevels, managing users, and configuring printers and compiling the kernel. You perform most of these tasks, such as adding a new printer or mounting a file system, rarely. Other tasks, such as adding users, you perform on a regular basis. Basic system administration covers topics such as system access by superusers, selecting the run level to start, system configuration files, and performance monitoring. These are discussed in detail in this chapter.
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System Management: Superuser
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To perform system administration operations, you must first have the correct password that enables you to log in as the root user, making you the superuser. Because a superuser has the power to change almost anything on the system, such a password is usually a carefully guarded secret given only to those whose job is to manage the system. With the correct password, you can log into the system as a system administrator and configure the system in different ways. You can start up and shut down the system, as well as change to a different operating mode, such as a single-user mode. You can also add or remove users, add or remove whole file systems, back up and restore files, and even designate the system's name. To become a superuser, you log into the root user account. This is a special account reserved for system management operations with unrestricted access to all components of your Linux operating system. When you log into the system as the root user, you are placed in a shell from which you can issue administrative Linux commands. The prompt for this shell is a sharp sign, #. In the next example, the user logs into the system as the root user. The password is, of course, not displayed.
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login: root password: #
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As the root user, you can use the passwd command to change the password for the root login, as well as for any other user on the system.
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# passwd root New password: Re-enter new password: #
While you are logged into a regular user account, it may be necessary for you to log into the root and become a superuser. Ordinarily, you would have to log out of your user account first, and then log into the root. Instead, you can use the su command (switch user) to log in directly to the root while remaining logged into your user account. A CTRL-D or exit command returns you to your own login. When logged in as the root, you can use su to log in as any user, without providing the password. In the next example, the user is logged in already. The su command then logs the user into the root, making the user a superuser. Some basic superuser commands are shown in Table 28-1.
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