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Several reasons exist for reducing the size of a file. The two most common are to save space or, if you are transferring the file across a network, to save transmission time. You can effectively reduce a file size by creating a compressed copy of it. Anytime you need the file again, you decompress it. Compression is used in combination with archiving to enable you to compress whole directories and their files at once. Decompression generates a copy of the archive file, which can then be extracted, generating a copy of those files and directories. Several compression utilities are available for use on Linux and Unix systems. Most software for Linux systems use the GNU gzip and gunzip utilities. The gzip utility compresses files and gunzip decompresses them. To compress a file, enter the command gzip and the filename. This replaces the file with a compressed version of it, with the extension .gz.
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To decompress a gzip file, use either gzip with the -d option or the command gunzip. These commands decompress a compressed file with the .gz extension and replace it with a decompressed version with the same root name, but without the .gz extension. When you use gunzip, you needn't even type in the .gz extension. gunzip and gzip -d assume it. Table 32-21 lists the different gzip options.
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Suppose you want to display or print the contents of a compressed file without first having to decompress it. The command zcat generates a decompressed version of a file and sends it to the standard output. You can then redirect this output to a printer or display a utility such as more. The original file remains in its compressed state.
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You can also compress archived tar files. This results in files with the extensions .tar.gz. Compressed archived files are often used for transmitting extremely large files across networks.
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You can compress tar file members individually using the tar z option that invokes gzip. With the z option, tar invokes gzip to compress a file before placing it in an archive. Archives with members compressed with the z option, however, can neither be updated nor added to. All members must be compressed and all must be added at the same time. Table 32-21: The gzip Options Execution Sends compressed version of file to standard output; each file listed is separately compressed: gzip -c mydata preface myfiles.gz Decompresses a compressed file; or, you can use gunzip: gzip -d myfiles.gz gunzip myfiles.gz Displays help listing. Displays compressed and uncompressed size of each file listed: gzip -l myfiles.gz. Recursively searches for specified directories and compresses all the files in them; the search begins from the current working directory; when used with gunzip, compressed files of a specified directory are uncompressed. For each compressed or decompressed file, displays its name and the percentage of its reduction in size. Determines the speed and size of the compression; the range is from -1 to -9. A lower number gives greater speed but less compression, resulting in a larger file that compresses and decompresses quickly; -1 gives the quickest compression, but with the largest size; -9 results in a very small file that takes longer to compress and decompress. The default is 6.
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Option -c -d -h -l file-list -r directory-name
-v file-list -num
You can also use the compress and uncompress commands to create compressed files. They generate a file that has a .Z extension and use a different compression format than gzip. The compress and uncompress commands are not that widely used, but you may run across .Z files occasionally. You can use the uncompress command to decompress a .Z file. The gzip utility is the standard GNU compression utility and should be used instead of compress.
Another popular compression utility is bzip2. It compresses files using the Burrows-Wheeler block-sorting text compression algorithm and Huffman coding. The command line options are similar to gzip by design, but they are not exactly the same. See the bzip2 Man page for a complete listing. You compress files using the bzip2 command and decompress with bunzip2. The bzip2 command creates files with the extension .bz2. You can use bzcat to output compressed data to the standard output. The bzip2 command compresses files in block and enables you to specify their size (larger blocks give you greater compression). As with gzip, you can use bzip2 to compress tar archive files. The following example compresses the mydata file into a bzip compressed file with the extension .bz2:
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