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The hello1.c program is a simple Gnome application in the "Hello World" tradition. The program creates a simple window with a button that displays a message on the standard output of your terminal window. When the user clicks the Close box (delete_event), the window closes (see Figure 1).
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Figure 1: Gnome window Gnome functions begin with the term "gnome", whereas GTK functions begin with "gtk". Notice that the initialization function is a Gnome function, gnome_init. As explained earlier, Gnome programs are event-driven: you first define your objects, such as windows, then set their attributes, and then bind signals from events such as mouse clicks to objects like
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windows and to functions that process these events. Such functions are often referred to as callback functions. To compile this program, you can use the following compile command in a Gnome terminal window. Then, just enter hello1 to run it. The -o option specifies the name of the program, in this case hello. Be sure to use back quotes for the gnome-config segment.
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gcc hello1.c o hello1 'gnome-config - cflags - libs gnome gnomeui'
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You would use the following steps to create the hello program listed in hello.c.
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Define two callback functions: hellomessage and closeprog. hellomessage just outputs a simple text, "Hello World". closeprog invokes the gtk_main_quit function to end the program. In the main function, define two GtkWidget pointers: app and mybutton. app should be a pointer to the main application window and mybutton to a simple button object. Create a gnome_init function to initialize the Gnome interface. Create a button object using the gtk_button_new_with_label function, and assign its address to the mybutton pointer, as shown in the following code line. The button will be displayed with the label "Click Me".
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mybutton = gtk_button_new_with_label("Click Me");
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Create an application window widget using the gnome_app_new function, and assign its address to the app pointer. Use gnome_app_set_contents to place the button in the application window. Use gtk_signal_connect to connect the application with a delete_event signal, which occurs when the user clicks the Close box. Set this to execute the closeprog function, which should use gtk_main_quit to end the program. Use gtk_signal_connect to connect the button to the mouse click event (clicked), and set this to execute the hello function. Whenever the user clicks the button, "Hello World" should be displayed on the standard output. Use the gtk_widget_show_all function to display the application window and the button it now contains. Use gtk_main starts the interactive interface.
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The contents of the hello1.c program are shown here. hello.c
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#include <gnome.h> void hellomessage( GtkWidget *widget, gpointer data ) { g_print ("Hello World\n"); } gint closeprog ( GtkWidget *widget, GdkEvent *event, gpointer data ) { gtk_main_quit(); }
int main( int argc, char *argv[] ) { GtkWidget *app; GtkWidget *mybutton; gnome_init ("", "0.1", argc, argv); mybutton = gtk_button_new_with_label("Click Me"); app = gnome_app_new ("Hello-World", "Hello App"); gnome_app_set_contents (GNOME_APP (app), mybutton); gtk_signal_connect (GTK_OBJECT (app), "delete_event", GTK_SIGNAL_FUNC (closeprog),NULL); gtk_signal_connect (GTK_OBJECT (mybutton), "clicked", GTK_SIGNAL_FUNC (hellomessage), NULL); gtk_widget_show_all(app); gtk_main (); return(0); }
Instead of coding complex and detailed statements for all your Gnome widgets, you can use Glade to automatically generate them. Glade provides a graphical user interface for creating Gnome widgets, combining them into a GUI interface for your application. With Glade, creating a Gnome interface is as simple as selecting and placing widgets onto windows. For each widget you can specify certain properties such as their size, color, and the signals they use. See for more information. You can start Glade by selecting its entry in the Gnome Applications menu. Be sure that you have already installed the Gnome development packages, including Glade. Glade will initially display three separate windows, the main Glade window, the Palette window, and the Property Editor (labeled Properties). To create your interface you will be selecting Gnome widgets in the Palette window. When you select a window on the Palette, a window will automatically be generated on your desktop. You can then select different widgets such as buttons and menus, and place them on the window, building your interface. When you create a window, it is listed in the main Glade window. As you create more windows for your application interface, icons for them will be displayed in the Glade window. Figure 2 shows Glade with a window labeled window1 that has been created. From the Glade window you can also open previous projects. When you are finished with Glade, select Exit from the File menu.
Figure 2: Glade To start using Glade, you first create a project. Select New Project from the File menu or click on the New icon in the toolbar. The Project Options window will let you select the directory you want your project placed in (see Figure 3). By default, projects are placed in a directory called Projects in your home directory. Each project has its own subdirectory which is given the default name numbered project1. You can specify your own name for the Project directory, as well as the subdirectories for the particular projects. A Glade project file will have the extension .glade, in this directory. The source code files for the project are placed in a subdirectory named src. Glade will generate a main.c and an interface.c source code file for the widgets you create.
Figure 3: Glade project options The Palette is the key component in Glade. Here you will find all the widgets you can use to create your interface. The Palette displays three different kinds of widgets: GTK+ Basic, GTK+ Additional, and Gnome. There are buttons for each at the top of the Palette window, and clicking on one will display the widgets available for each category. GTK+ Basic, as the
name suggests, provides basic components such as buttons, windows, and menus. GTK+ Additional provides more sophisticated, though less commonly used, GTK+ widgets. Gnome lists the Gnome widgets. These conform to the functions in the Gnome libraries. Of particular note is the Gnome application window, which provides a Gnome application window with basic menus and toolbar already installed. Figure 4 shows the Glade Palette displaying the GTK+ widgets.
Figure 4: Glade Palette When creating a Gnome interface, bear in mind that Gnome uses a container method for holding and placing its widgets. Each widget that you place in a window, cannot be placed directly in the window, but, instead, must be placed in a container. In fact, the key to designing a Gnome interface is to first select the appropriate container for the widget you want to add. For example, to place a button in a Gnome window, you first place a container for it on the window and then place the button in that container. Containers come in a variety of combinations. You can have several containers stacked on top of each other in rows (horizontal boxes), or set beside each other in columns (vertical boxes). Containers can be organized into tables, or you can create a container that supports fixed positions. When you place a container on a window, you will be asked to select the number of containers you want. For example, for containers that fill up rows the length of a window, you would select
horizontal box container. When you place it on the window, you will be prompted to enter the number of rows you want. The different types of containers are displayed at the bottom of the GTK+ Basic Palette window, showing the outline formats for each. Figure 5 shows the containers currently available.
Figure 5: Glade GTK+ containers Keep in mind that, unless you select the Fixed Position container, the widget will automatically expand to fill the frame. For example, a button placed in a row container will fill the entire length of the window. This is helpful if you are selecting the kind of widget that would fit well into that container. For example, if you want to add a menu and a toolbar to a blank window, you would first select and place the horizontal boxes container and select three rows. Initially, all three rows will be evenly sized. Then you would click on the menu widget and place it on the first row. The row will contract to the size of the menu, and the same for the toolbar placed on the second row. You can create complex combinations by placing one container inside another. For example, you could first create two row containers, placing a menu in one. Then place two column containers in the remaining row container. In one column, you could place several button-row containers and put buttons in them. The other column could hold a frame for displaying data. Tip You can delete any widget, including containers, by right-clicking on them and selecting Delete from the pop-up menu. To just place a widget anywhere on a surface, you would use the Fixed Positions container. With this container, you can then select any number of widgets, placing each at different places on the container space. You can move or resize the widget by selecting it to display the anchor points on its corners. Use these to resize it, or use click and drag on the selected widget to move it. In Figure 6, a Fixed Position container has been created and two widgets placed on it a label with the text "Hello World" and a button with the text "Click Me".
Figure 6: Buttons and labels on Glade The properties window will display the different properties for a selected widget. The properties window displays several tabbed panels. Here, you can enter the features like the text displayed by a widget should it display text. Widgets like buttons and menu items will also have a Signals panel where you can select the signals that that widget will respond to. You can have several signals for any given widget. To create a signal, you first select the kind of signal from the pop-up menu, then select the handler function that signal will execute. You can also enter data and objects to be passed. Figure 7 shows the Signal panel for the Click Me button.
Figure 7: Glade Signal Properties panel Once you have created your interface, you then need to generate the source code for it. Click the Build icon or select Build from the File menu. This will generate main.c and interface.c
files. The interface.c file in your project's src directory will hold the C code for your widgets. You can then continue to code your program, adding classes and functions your project develops. You can open your Glade project at any time to add new windows, dialogs, and their widgets. In the project directory, you can use Autoconf and configure commands to generate an appropriate Make file, and then use the make command to create your application.
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