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MOTOR SPECIFICATIONS 239
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Current draw is the amount of current, in milliamps or amps, that the motor requires from the power supply. Current draw is more important when the specification describes motor loading, that is, when the motor is turning something or doing some work. The current draw of a free-running (no-load) motor can be quite low. But have that same motor spin a wheel, which in turn moves a robot across the floor, and the current draw jumps 300, 500, even 1000 percent. With most permanent magnet motors (the most popular kind), current draw increases with load. You can see this visually in Fig. 17.3. The more the motor has to work to turn the shaft, the more current is required. The load used by the manufacturer when testing the motor isn t standardized, so in your application the current draw may be more or less than that specified. A point is reached when the motor does all the work it can do, and no more current will flow through it. The shaft stops rotating; the motor has stalled. Some motors, but not many, are rated (by the manufacturer) by the amount of current they draw when stalled. This is considered the worse-case condition. The motor will never draw more than this current unless it is shorted out, so if the system is designed to handle the stall current it can handle anything. Motors rated by their stall current will be labeled as such. Motors designed for the military, available through surplus stores, are typically rated by their stall current. When providing motors for your robots, you should always know the approximate current draw under load. Most volt-ohm meters can test current. Some special-purpose amp meters are made just for the job. Be aware that some volt-ohm meters can t handle the kind of current pulled through a motor. Most digital meters (discussed more completely in 3, Tools and Supplies ) can t deal with more than 200 to 400 milliamps of current. Even small hobby motors can draw in excess of this. Be sure your meter can accommodate current up to 5 or 10 amps. If your meter cannot register this high without popping fuses or burning up, insert a 1- to 10-ohm power resistor (10 to 20 watts) between one of the motor terminals and the positive supply rail, as shown in Fig. 17.4. With the meter set on DC voltage, measure the voltage developed across the resistor. A bit of Ohm s law, I E/R (I is current, E is voltage, R is resistance) reveals the current draw through the motor. For example, if the resistance is 10 ohms and the voltage is 2.86 volts, the current draw is 286 mA. You can watch the voltage go up (and therefore the current too) by loading the shaft of the motor.
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6 5 Current 4 (amps) 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Load (lb-ft) 6 7 8 9 Increasing load
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FIGURE 17.3 The current draw of a motor increases in proportion to the load on the motor shaft.
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240 CHOOSING THE RIGHT MOTOR FOR THE JOB
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Meter (set to read voltage)
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FIGURE 17.4 How to test the current draw of a motor by measuring the voltage developed across an in-line resistor. The actual value of the resistor can vary, but it should be under about 20 ohms. Be sure the resistor is a high-wattage type.
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SPEED
The rotational speed of a motor is given in revolutions per minute (rpm). Most continuous DC motors have a normal operating speed of 4000 to 7000 rpm. However, some specialpurpose motors, such as those used in tape recorders and computer disk drives, operate as slow as 2000 to 3000 rpm. For just about all robotic applications, these speeds are much too high. You must reduce the speed to no more than 150 rpm (even less for motors driving arms and grippers) by using a gear train. You can obtain some reduction by using electronic control, as described in Part 5 of this book, Computers and Electronic Control. However, such control is designed to make fine-tuned speed adjustments, not reduce the rotation of the motor from 5000 rpm to 50 rpm. See the later sections of this chapter for more details on gear trains and how they are used. Note that the speed of stepping motors is not rated in rpm but in steps (or pulses) per second. The speed of a stepper motor is a function of the number of steps that are required to make one full revolution plus the number of steps applied to the motor each second. As a comparison, the majority of light- and medium-duty stepper motors operate at the equivalent of 100 to 140 rpm. See 19, Working with Stepper Motors, for more information.
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