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FIGURE 23.15 The bell crank changes the contraction of the SMA for sideways movement of the lever. The spring enables the bell crank to return to its original position after the current is removed from the wire.
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17, Choosing the Right Motor for the Job 18, Working with DC Motors 22, Build a Heavy-duty, Six-legged Walking Robot
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AN OVERVIEW OF ARM SYSTEMS
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Robots without arms are limited to rolling or walking about, perhaps noting things that
occur around them, but little else. The robot can t, as the slogan goes, reach out and touch someone, and it certainly can t manipulate its world. The more sophisticated robots in science, industry, and research and development have at least one arm to grasp, reorient, or move objects. Arms extend the reach of robots and make them more like humans. For all the extra capabilities arms provide a robot, it s interesting that they aren t at all difficult to build. Your arm designs can be used for factorystyle, stationary pick-and-place robots, or they can be attached to a mobile robot as an appendage. This chapter deals with the concept and design theory of robotic arms. Specific arm projects are presented in s 25 and 26. Incidentally, when we speak of arms, we will usually mean just the arm mechanism minus the hand (also called the gripper). 27, Experimenting with Gripper Designs, talks about how to construct robotic hands and how you can add them to arms to make a complete, functioning appendage.
The Human Arm
Take a close look at your own arms for a moment. You ll quickly notice a number of important points. First, your arms are amazingly adept mechanisms, no doubt about it. They are
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372 AN OVERVIEW OF ARM SYSTEMS
capable of being maneuvered into just about any position you want. Your arm has two major joints: the shoulder and the elbow (the wrist, as far as robotics is concerned, is usually considered part of the gripper mechanism). Your shoulder can move in two planes, both up and down and back and forth. Move your shoulder muscles up, and your entire arm is raised away from your body. Move your shoulder muscles forward, and your entire arm moves forward. The elbow joint is capable of moving in two planes as well: back and forth and up and down. The joints in your arm, and your ability to move them, are called degrees of freedom. Your shoulder provides two degrees of freedom in itself: shoulder rotation and shoulder flexion. The elbow joint adds a third and fourth degree of freedom: elbow flexion and elbow rotation. Robotic arms also have degrees of freedom. But instead of muscles, tendons, ball and socket joints, and bones, robot arms are made from metal, plastic, wood, motors, solenoids, gears, pulleys, and a variety of other mechanical components. Some robot arms provide but one degree of freedom; others provide three, four, and even five separate degrees of freedom.
Arm Types
Robot arms are classified by the shape of the area that the end of the arm (where the gripper is) can reach. This accessible area is called the work envelope. For simplicity s sake, the work envelope does not take into consideration motion by the robot s body, just the arm mechanics. The human arm has a nearly spherical work envelope. We can reach just about anything, as long as it is within arm s length, within the inside of about three-quarters of a sphere. Imagine being inside a hollowed-out orange. You stand by one edge. When you reach out, you can touch the inside walls of about three-quarters of the orange peel. In a robot, such a robot arm would be said to have revolute coordinates. The three other main robot arm designs are polar coordinate, cylindrical coordinate, and Cartesian coordinate. You ll note that there are three degrees of freedom in all four basic types of arm designs. Let s take a closer look at each one.
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