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Microcontrollers are fast becoming a favorite method for endowing a robot with smarts. Microcontrollers are inexpensive, have simple power requirements (usually just 5 volts), and most can be programmed using software on your PC. Once programmed, the microcontroller is disconnected from the PC and operates on its own. Microcontrollers are available in two basic flavors: low-level programmable and embeddedlanguage programmable. These loosely defined terms relate to the programming of the controller. Both kinds of microcontroller are fully programmable, but one contains a kind of operating system that allows it to be programmed with a higher-level language, such as Basic. Microcontrollers are available in 4-, 8-, 16-, and 32-bit versions (plus a few others, used for special purposes). While PCs have long since graduated to 16-bit and higher architectures, most applications for microcontrollers do not require more than 8 bits; hence, the 8-bit controller is still very popular.
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Low-level programmable Microcontrollers are, in effect, programmable integrated circuits in which you define how the innards of the chip are connected and how the various connections interact with one another. Following the cues of your program, the microcontroller accepts input, analyzes it in one way or another, and outputs some value. This is fundamentally the same as any computer, except that a microcontroller is primarily designed to operate things (motors, relays, lamps, etc.) rather than interact with people through a keyboard and display monitor.
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The traditional way to program a microcontroller is with assembly language, using your PC as a host development system. Assembler appears somewhat arcane to newcomers. However, because microcontrollers use a limited set of instructions, with adequate study it is not overly difficult to master. The exact format and contents of an assembly-language microcontroller program vary between manufacturers. The popular PIC microcontrollers from Microchip follow one language convention. Microcontrollers from Intel, Atmel, Motorola, NEC, Texas Instruments, Philips, Hitachi, Holtek, and other companies may follow a different convention. While the basic functionality of microcontrollers from these different companies is similar, learning to use each one involves a learning curve. As a result, microcontroller developers tend to fixate on one brand, and even one model, since learning a new language syntax can entail a lot of extra work. Assembly language is a common method for programming microcontrollers, but it is by no means the only method. A number of compilers are available that convert the syntax of a higher-level language such as Basic, C, or Pascal into a language the controller can use. In one approach, the compiler transforms your Basic, C, or other program into the machine code required by the microcontroller. Once compiled the program is downloaded from the PC to the controller Popular microcontrollers commonly used in robot control include those listed in the following table.
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PIC16F84* 68HC05 68HC11 8051 AVR H8/3292*** Z8 80186,80188 80386 EX
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Microchip Motorola Motorola, Toshiba Intel and various** Atmel Hitachi Zilog Intel
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Notes: *PIC16F84 is just one of several dozen microcontrollers in the PICMicro line of microcontrollers from Microchip. The PIC controllers vary by internal architecture (e.g., 8- or 16-bit), number of inputs, and special I/O features such as built-in analog-to-digital converters. **The 8051 has become an industry-standard microcontroller design and is available from a number of companies, which include (as of this writing) Intel, Atmel, Philips, Dallas Semiconductor, and several others. As such, the functionality and capabilities of the 8051 systems can vary. *** The H8 is the microcontroller used in the popular LEGO Mindstorms RCX robot.
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Embedded-language programmable In this popular microcontroller flavor, the microcontroller contains a high-level language interpreter that is permanently stored on the
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chip. For lack of a better term, we ll refer to these as embedded-language programmable. With this system, the compiler on your computer converts your program into an intermediate tokenized language. The interpreter in the microcontroller finishes the job of translating the tokens to the low-level machine code needed by the chip. Among the most popular embedded-language programmable microcontrollers for hobby robots is the Basic Stamp. Over the past few years, a number of competitors to the Basic Stamp have appeared, including the OOPic from Savage Industries and the BasicX from NetMedia. These use Basic or a Basic-like syntax to save you from having to program the microcontroller in assembler. Basic Stamp, BasicX, and OOPic are discussed in much more detail in 31, 32, and 33, respectively. Standard and semistandard variants of the Basic programming language permeate microcontrollers. For example, a number of microcontrollers use Basic-52 (as found on the Micromint 80C52, for example), a fast and efficient version of Basic that fits in about 8K of memory space. Basic-52 provides additional command statements to support direct interfacing with the hardware of the chip. This includes interfacing with the chip s realtime clock, hardware interrupts, assembly language routines (when speed is required), and more. Another popular flavor of Basic, currently available for the 8051 and Atmel AVR microcontrollers, is BASCOM, from MCS Electronics, based in Holland. BASCOM is a development environment in which you write code in Basic, then compile the result in machine-readable code, which is then sent to the microcontroller. Users of BASCOM enjoy the easier Basic development language, while still being able to take advantage of all the microcontroller s hardware, including timers and interrupts.
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