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VOLTAGE REGULATION
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D1 1N4148 VOUT 1 0.1 F
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FIGURE 15.9 The Maxim MAX638 is among several high-efficiency voltage regulators available. The MAX638 is most commonly used to provide regulated 5 volts, but it can also be adjusted using external components to provide other voltages.
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TABLE 15.2 PARTS LIST FOR MAXIM MAX638 SWITCHING POWER SUPPLY.
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IC1 R1 R2 C1 C2 D1 L1
MAX 638 (Maxim) 120K resistor 47K 100K resistor 0.1 F ceramic capacitor 100 F electrolytic capacitor 1N4148 diode 220 H inductor
All resistors have 5 or 10 percent tolerance, 1/4-watt.
ZENER VOLTAGE REGULATION
A quick and inexpensive method for providing a semiregulated voltage is to use zener diodes, as shown in Fig. 15.10. With a zener diode, current does not begin to flow through the device until the voltage exceeds a certain level (called the breakdown voltage). Voltage over this level is then shunted through the zener diode, effectively limiting the voltage to the rest of the circuit. Zener diodes are available in a variety of voltages, such as 3.3 volts, 5.1 volts, 6.2 volts, and others. Zener diodes are also rated by their tolerance (1 percent and 5 percent are common) and their power rating, in watts. For low-current applications, a 0.3- or 0.5-watt zener should be sufficient; higher currents require larger 1-, 5-, and even 10-watt zeners. Note the
206 ALL ABOUT BATTERIES AND ROBOT POWER SUPPLIES
Vin Zener
Current-limiting resistor
VOut
FIGURE 15.10 A zener diode and resistor can make a simple and inexpensive voltage regulator. Be sure to select the proper wattage for the zener and the proper wattage and resistance for the resistor.
resistor R1 in the schematic shown in Fig. 15.10. This resistor limits the current through the zener, and its value (and wattage) is determined by the current draw from the load, as well as the input and output voltages.
POWER DISTRIBUTION
You may choose to place all or most of your robot s electronic components on a single board. You can mount the regulator(s) directly on the board. You can also have several smaller boards share one regulator as long as the boards together don t pull power in excess of what the regulator can supply. Fig. 15.11 shows how to distribute the power from a single battery source to many separate circuit boards. The individual regulators provide power for one or two large boards or to a half dozen or so smaller ones. Voltage regulators are great devices, but they are somewhat wasteful. To work properly, the regulator must be provided with several volts more than the desired output voltage. For example, the 7812 12-volt regulator needs 13 to 15 volts to deliver the full voltage and current specified for the device. Well-regulated 12-volt robotic systems may require you to use an 18-volt supply.
Voltage Double and Inverters
If your robot is equipped with 12-volt motors and uses circuitry that requires only 5 and/or 12 volts, then your work is made easy for you. But if you require negative supply voltages for some of the circuits, you re faced with a design dilemma. Do you add more batteries to provide the negative supply That s one solution, and it may be the only one available to you if the current demand of the circuits is moderate to high. Another approach is to use a polarity-reversal circuit, such as the one in Fig. 15.12 (refer to the parts list in Table 15.3). The current at the output is limited to less than 200 mA, but this is often enough for devices like op amps, CMOS analog switches, and other small devices that require a 5 or 12 vdc voltage. The negative output voltage is proportional to the positive output voltage. So, 12 volts in means roughly 12 volts out.
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