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28.3 Flexible Finger Grippers
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Clapper and two-pincher grippers are not like human fingers. One thing they lack is a compliant grip: the capacity to contour the grasp to match the object. The digits in our fingers can wrap around just about any oddly shaped object, which is one of the reasons we are able to use tools successfully. You can approximate the compliant grip by making articulated fingers for your robot. At least one toy is available that uses this technique; you can use it as a design base. The plas-
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28.3 FLEXIBLE FINGER GRIPPERS
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tic toy arm described earlier is available with a handlike gripper instead of a claw gripper. Pulling on the handgrip causes the four fingers to close around an object, as shown in Fig. 28-16. The opposing thumb is not articulated, but you can make a thumb that moves in a compliant gripper of your own design. Make the fingers from hollow tube stock cut at the knuckles. The mitered cuts allow the fingers to fold inward. The fingers are hinged by the remaining plastic on the topside of the tube. Inside the tube fingers is semiflexible plastic, which is attached to the fingertips. Pulling on the handgrip exerts inward force on the fingertips and the fingers collapse at the cut joints. You can use the ready-made plastic hand for your projects. Mount it as detailed in the previous section on the two-pincher claw arm. You can make your own fingers from a variety of materials. One approach is to use the plastic pieces from some of the toy construction kits. Cut notches into the plastic to make the joints. Attach a length of 20- or 22-gauge stove wire to the fingertip and keep it pressed against the finger using nylon wire ties. Do not make the ties too tight, or the wire won t be able to move. An experimental plastic finger is shown in Fig. 28-17. You can mount three of four such fingers on a plastic or metal palm and connect all the cables from the fingers to a central pull rod. The pull rod is activated by a solenoid or motor. Note that it takes a considerable pull to close the fingers, so the actuating solenoid or motor should be fairly powerful. The finger opens again when the wire is pushed back out as well as by the natural spring action of the plastic. This springiness may not last forever, and it may vary if you use other materials. One way to guarantee that the fingers open is to attach an expansion spring, or a strip of flexible spring metal, to the tip and base of the finger, on the back side. The spring should give under the inward force of the solenoid or motor, but adequately return the finger to the open position when power is cut.
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FIGURE 28-16 Commercially available plastic robotic arm and hand toy. The gripper can be salvaged for use in your own designs. The opposing thumb is not articulated, but the fingers have a semicompliant grip.
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FIGURE 28-17 A design for an experimental compliant finger. Make the finger spring-loaded by attaching a spring to the back of the finger (a strip of lightweight spring metal also works).
28.4 Wrist Rotation
The human wrist has three degrees of freedom: it can twist on the forearm, it can rock up and down, and it can rock from side to side. You can add some or all of these degrees of freedom to a robotic hand. A basic schematic of a three-degree-of-freedom wrist is shown in Fig. 28-18. With most arm designs, you ll just want to rotate the gripper at the wrist. Wrist rotation is usually performed by a motor attached at the end of the arm or at the base. When the motor is connected at the base (for weight considerations), a cable or chain joins the motor shaft to the wrist. The gripper and motor shaft are outfitted with mating spur gears. You can also use chains (miniature or #25) or timing belts to link the gripper to the drive motor. Fig.
FIGURE 28-18 The three basic degrees of freedom in a human or robotic wrist (wrist rotation in the human arm is actually accomplished by rotating the bones in the forearm).
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