vb.net read barcode from camera Following a Predefined Path: Line Tracing in Software

Drawing QR Code JIS X 0510 in Software Following a Predefined Path: Line Tracing

33.2 Following a Predefined Path: Line Tracing
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Perhaps the simplest navigation system for mobile robots involves following some predefined path that s marked on the ground. The path can be a black or white line painted on a hard-surfaced floor, a wire buried beneath a carpet, a physical track, or any of several other methods. This type of robot navigation is used in some factories. Marking the path with reflective tape is preferred in factories because the track can easily be changed without ripping up or repainting the floor. You can readily incorporate a tape-track navigation system in your robot. The linetracing feature can be the robot s only means of semi-intelligent action, or it can be just one part of a more sophisticated machine. You could, for example, use the tape to help guide a robot back to its battery charger nest. With a line-tracing robot, you place a piece of white or reflective tape on the floor. For the best results, the floor should be hard, like wood, concrete, or linoleum, and not carpeted. One or more optical sensors are placed on the robot. These sensors incorporate an infrared LED and an infrared phototransistor. When the transistor turns on it sees the light
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from the LED reflected off the tape. Obviously, darker floors provide better contrast against light-colored tape. In a working robot, mount the LED and phototransistors in a suitable enclosure, as described more fully in 30, Object Detection. Or, use a commercially available LED phototransistor pair (again, see 30). Mount the detectors on the bottom of the robot, as shown in Fig. 33-2, in which two detectors are set apart twice the width of the tape. Fig. 33-3 shows the basic sensor circuit and how the LED and phototransistor are wired. Feel free to experiment with the value of R2; it determines the sensitivity of the phototransistor and its voltage range when just the floor or the tape is reflecting the infrared light or a combination of the two. Ideally, you would like the voltage output to be as binary as possible: a high voltage level for a black floor (no light being passed to the phototransistor, so no current passes through it) and low for the white tape. Fig. 33-4 shows the sensor output passed to a comparator circuit that forms the basis of the line-tracing system. Refer to this figure often because this circuit can be used in other applications. You can use the schematics in Figs. 33-5 and 33-6 to build a complete line-tracing system (refer to the parts lists in Tables 33-1 and 33-2). You can build the circuit using just three IC packages: an LM339 quad comparator, a 7486 quad exclusive OR gate, and a 7400 quad NAND gate. Before using the robot, block the phototransistors so they don t receive any light. Rotate the shaft of the set-point pots until the relays kick in, then back off again. You may have to experiment with the settings of the set-point pots as you try out the system. Depending on which motors you use and the switching speed of the relays, you may find your robot waddling its way down the track, overcorrecting for its errors every time. You can help minimize this by using faster-acting relays. Another approach is to vary the gap between the two sensors. By making it wide, the robot won t be turning back and forth as much to correct for small errors.
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FIGURE 33-2 Placement of the left and right phototransistor LED pair for the linetracing robot.
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33.2 FOLLOWING A PREDEFINED PATH: LINE TRACING
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LED1
FIGURE 33-3 The basic LED-phototransistor wiring diagram.
The actual turn radius will depend entirely on the robot. If you need your robot to turn very tight, small corners, build it small. If your robot has a brain, whether it is a computer or central microprocessor, you can use it instead of the direct connection to the relays for motor control. The output of the comparators, when used with a +5 V supply, is compatible with computer and microprocessor circuitry, as long as you follow the interface guidelines provided in 14. The two sensors require only two bits of an eight-bit port.
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