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Copyright 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.
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CHAPTER 17 Intelligent Behavior
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Even then, intelligence is not necessarily easy to define. Is a chess-playing robot intelligent, or just really good at solving board positions How about a visual inspection robot Is intelligence the ability to think logically Programs can do logic, they are quite good at it. But they are bad at things that we don t normally consider a part of intelligence, such as recognizing faces. Our friend the OED defines intelligence as the faculty of understanding . Think for a minute, what does it mean to understand something What do you know about a pencil, for example How did you come to know it This chapter actually deals with behavior more than intelligence.
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Reflexive Control
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Most robots have a layer of purely reflexive control. These reflexes, which are simple actions that occur without thinking, are all that is needed for some robots. They provide a form of homeostasis, literally, resistance to change. Homeostasis is a complex response to stimulus used to keep a system within acceptable limits. Your body s response to heat, sweating, is such a response. Of course, your home thermostat is also practicing a form of homeostasis. Figure 17-1 shows a way at looking at this low-level control. The system we are considering is contained in the dashed box. We receive a command outside of this system that defines a goal state, such as a particular temperature or a position in space. Also outside of the system are the unknown and unknowable disturbances that affect the robot. Inside we have the robot,
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Fig. 17-1.
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Re exive control.
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Intelligent Behavior
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or other mechanical or chemical system, and its control system. The control system senses the state of the robot and uses this information, in comparison with the goal, to generate output actions. The equation Z f (X,Y) means that the output action Z is a function of the sensed state X and the input goal Y. The function can be as simple as equation (17-1): f X,Y Y X Z Y X 17-1
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If the sensed state is greater than the goal, the action will be to increase the state of the robot so it matches the goal. Hardly rocket science. This only works with numbers, of course. The goal, the sensed state, and the action are all assumed to be represented by numbers. Equation (17-1) makes the assumption that the output action directly affects the input sense, using the same range and scale of values. The real world is rarely so accommodating.
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THERMOSTAT
The traditional control example is the thermostat. The goal is a temperature you set and the sense is the actual temperature. The output is not, however, a power setting for the heater but instead a simple on/off switch. Most home heaters operate at full on or full off. At first thought, the control logic might look like:
If temperature is greater then setting then turn heater off. Otherwise, turn heater on.
This is a terrible control system. The heater will be clicking on and o all the time. To fix it, we introduce our old friend hysteresis. By defining a dead band around the desired setting we can reduce the number of on/off transitions (Fig. 17-2). The control logic is only complicated a little bit by this hysteresis. Note we are using a compact notation here, just one of many possible notations: b DeadBand 2
Z 1: X < Y b Z 0: X > Y b
17-2
CHAPTER 17 Intelligent Behavior
Fig. 17-2. Dead band.
where b is one half of the dead band. Z is set to 1 (the heater is turned on) when X (the temperature) is less than Y (the desired temperature) minus b (half of the dead band). Likewise, if the temperature goes above the dead band s top, turn o the heater.
There is a reason we jump around, illustrating concepts using di erent notations. The symbols used to communicate an idea are not as important as the idea itself. There are many di erent ways to say any given thing. The more of these ways you can recognize, the better. While it may be confusing at times, it builds character.
Note that when the heater is turned off, the environment continues to get hotter for a while. Also, the temperature falls a bit after the heater has turned on. Physical systems have momentum, a tendency to continue in their current direction. The amount that the measured value goes above the target value, in this case the top of the dead band, is called overshoot. Likewise, falling under the mark is undershoot.
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