vb.net barcode reader free Figure 1-1 This multiaxis X-Y-Z motion platform is an example of a motion control system. in Software

Generation Data Matrix in Software Figure 1-1 This multiaxis X-Y-Z motion platform is an example of a motion control system.

Figure 1-1 This multiaxis X-Y-Z motion platform is an example of a motion control system.
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Figure 1-2 The right-handed coordinate system showing six degrees of freedom.
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mechanical components on each axis, rotation about the three axes can provide up to six degrees of freedom, as shown in Figure 1-2. Motion control systems today can be found in such diverse applications as materials handling equipment, machine tool centers, chemical and pharmaceutical process lines, inspection stations, robots, and injection molding machines.
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Most motion control systems today are powered by electric motors rather than hydraulic or pneumatic motors or actuators because of the many benefits they offer: More precise load or tool positioning, resulting in fewer product or process defects and lower material costs. Quicker changeovers for higher flexibility and easier product customizing. Increased throughput for higher efficiency and capacity. Simpler system design for easier installation, programming, and training. Lower downtime and maintenance costs. Cleaner, quieter operation without oil or air leakage. Electric-powered motion control systems do not require pumps or air compressors, and they do not have hoses or piping that can leak
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hydraulic fluids or air. This discussion of motion control is limited to electric-powered systems.
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Motion Control Classification
Motion control systems can be classified as open-loop or closed-loop. An open-loop system does not require that measurements of any output variables be made to produce error-correcting signals; by contrast, a closed-loop system requires one or more feedback sensors that measure and respond to errors in output variables.
Closed-Loop System
A closed-loop motion control system, as shown in block diagram Figure 1-3, has one or more feedback loops that continuously compare the system s response with input commands or settings to correct errors in motor and/or load speed, load position, or motor torque. Feedback sensors provide the electronic signals for correcting deviations from the desired input commands. Closed-loop systems are also called servosystems. Each motor in a servosystem requires its own feedback sensors, typically encoders, resolvers, or tachometers that close loops around the motor and load. Variations in velocity, position, and torque are typically caused by variations in load conditions, but changes in ambient temperature and humidity can also affect load conditions. A velocity control loop, as shown in block diagram Figure 1-4, typically contains a tachometer that is able to detect changes in motor speed. This sensor produces error signals that are proportional to the positive or negative deviations of motor speed from its preset value. These signals are sent
Figure 1-3 Block diagram of a basic closed-loop control system.
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Figure 1-4 Block diagram of a velocity-control system.
to the motion controller so that it can compute a corrective signal for the amplifier to keep motor speed within those preset limits despite load changes. A position-control loop, as shown in block diagram Figure 1-5, typically contains either an encoder or resolver capable of direct or indirect measurements of load position. These sensors generate error signals that are sent to the motion controller, which produces a corrective signal for amplifier. The output of the amplifier causes the motor to speed up or slow down to correct the position of the load. Most position control closed-loop systems also include a velocity-control loop. The ballscrew slide mechanism, shown in Figure 1-6, is an example of a mechanical system that carries a load whose position must be controlled in a closed-loop servosystem because it is not equipped with position sensors. Three examples of feedback sensors mounted on the ballscrew mechanism that can provide position feedback are shown in Figure 1-7: (a) is a rotary optical encoder mounted on the motor housing with its shaft coupled to the motor shaft; (b) is an optical linear encoder with its gradu-
Figure 1-5 Block diagram of a position-control system.
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Figure 1-6 Ballscrew-driven single-axis slide mechanism without position feedback sensors.
ated scale mounted on the base of the mechanism; and (c) is the less commonly used but more accurate and expensive laser interferometer. A torque-control loop contains electronic circuitry that measures the input current applied to the motor and compares it with a value proportional to the torque required to perform the desired task. An error signal from the circuit is sent to the motion controller, which computes a corrective signal for the motor amplifier to keep motor current, and hence torque, constant. Torque- control loops are widely used in machine tools where the load can change due to variations in the density of the material being machined or the sharpness of the cutting tools.
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