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Figure 4-9 The common and unpredictable differential
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tion surfaces, and the vehicle is going straight, the wheels rotate at the same rpm. If the vehicle turns a corner, the outside wheel is traversing a longer path and therefore must be turning faster than the inside wheel. The differential facilitates this through the internal gears, which rotate inside the large gear, allowing one axle to rotate relative to the other. This system, or something very much like it, is what is inside virtually every car and truck on the road today. It obviously works well. The simple differential has one drawback. If one wheel is rolling on a surface with significantly less friction, it can slip and spin much faster than the other wheel. As soon as it starts to slip, the friction goes down further, exacerbating the problem. This is almost never noticed by a human operator, but can cause mobility problems for vehicles that frequently drive on slippery surfaces like mud, ice, and snow. There are a couple of solutions. One is to add clutches between the axles that slide on each other when one wheel rotates faster than the other. This works well, but is inefficient because the clutches absorb power whenever the vehicle goes around a corner. The other solution is the wonderfully complicated Torsen differential, manufactured by Zexel. The Torsen differential uses specially shaped worm gears to tie the two axles together. These gears allow the required differentiation between the two wheels when turning, but do not allow one wheel to spin as it looses traction. A vehicle equipped with a Torsen differential can effectively drive with one wheel on ice and the other on hard dry pavement! This differential uses very complex gear geometries. The best explanation of how it works can be found on Zexel s web site: www.torsen.com.
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The most basic four-wheeled vehicle actually doesn t even use a differential. It has two wheels on each side that are coupled together and is steered just like differential steered tricycles. Since the wheels are in line on each side and do not turn when a corner is commanded, they slide as the vehicle turns. This sliding action gives this steering method its name Skid Steer. Notice that this layout does not use differentials, even though it is also called differential steering. Skid steered vehicles are a robust, simple design with good mobility, in spite of the inefficiency of the sliding wheels. Because the wheels don t turn, it is easy to attach them to the chassis, and they don t take up the space required to turn. There are many industrial off-road skid steered vehicles in use, popularly called Bobcats. Figure 4-10 shows that a skid steered vehicle is indeed very simple. The problem with skid steered, non-suspended drivetrains is that as the vehicle goes over bumps, one wheel necessarily comes off the ground. This problem doesn t exist in two or three wheeled vehicles, but is a major thing to deal with on vehicles with more than three wheels. Though not a requirement for good mobility, it is better to use some mechanism that keeps all the wheels on the ground. There are many ways to accomplish this, starting with a design that splits the chassis in two.
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Figure 4-10 All four fixed, skid steered
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Figure 4-11 Simple longitudinal rocker
The longitudinal rocker design divides the entire vehicle right down the middle and places a passive pivot joint in between the two halves. This joint is connected on each end to a rocker arm, which in turn carry a wheel at each of their ends. This layout allows the rocker arms to pivot when any wheel tries to go higher or lower than the rest. This passive pivoting action keeps the load on all four wheels almost equal, increasing mobility simply by maintaining driving and braking action on all wheels at all times. Longitudinal rocker designs are skid steered, with the wheels on each side usually mechanically tied together like a simple skid steer, but sometimes, to increase mobility even further, the wheels are independently powered. Figure 4-11 shows the basic layout, developed by Sandia Labs for a vehicle named Ratler. The well-known forklift industrial truck uses a sideways version of the rocker system. Since its front wheels carry most of all loads lifted by the vehicle, structurally tying the wheels together is a more robust layout. These vehicles have four wheels without any suspension, and, therefore, require some method of keeping all the wheels on the ground. The most common layout has the front wheels tied together and a rocker installed transversely and coupled to the rear wheels, which are usually the steering wheels. Figure 4-12 shows this layout. The weakness of the forklift is that it is usually only two-wheel drive. This works well for its application, and because so much of the weight of the vehicle is over the front wheels. In general, though, powering all four wheels provides much higher mobility. In a two-wheel drive vehicle, the driven wheels must provide traction not only for whatever they are trying to get over, but also must push or pull the non-driven wheels. Many of the wheeled layouts are complex enough that they require a motor for
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