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16.1.1 Adaptive Wall-Following 16.1.2 Adaptive Line-Following
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235 237 237 241 243 244
Scanning Quick Response Code In None
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Paint QR Code ISO/IEC18004 In C#.NET
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245 245
Drawing QR Code In VS .NET
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QR Code 2d Barcode Generation In VS .NET
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16.2 How to De ne Intelligence
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16.2.1 Human Intelligence 16.2.2 Intelligence Through Association
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xviii CONTENTS
Generate International Standard Book Number In None
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16.3 Adaptation Through Association
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16.3.1 I Feel Pleasure I Feel Pain 16.3.2 Environmental Factors
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248 249
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16.4 Implementing the Algorithm
16.4.1 Developing a Personality 16.4.2 Displaying the Robot s Actions 16.4.3 Understanding the Code
257 258 259
16.5 Summary 16.6 Exercises 17 Relating Simulations to the Real World 17.1 A Historical Perspective
17.1.1 Early Hobby Robotics 17.1.2 Hobby Robotics Today 17.1.3 The Paradigm Shift
261 262 263 264
264 265 265
17.2 Constructing a Robot
17.2.1 17.2.2 17.2.3 17.2.4 17.2.5 17.2.6 17.2.7 17.2.8 17.2.9 17.2.10 17.3.1 17.3.2 17.3.3 17.3.4 Wheel and Base Assembly Bumper Sensors Infrared Perimeter Sensors Line Sensors Ranging Sensor The Compass The GPS The Camera Beacon Detection Practical Consideration Control by a Microcontroller Control by an Onboard PC Control by a Remote PC Wirelessly Control by a Remote PC Wirelessly Using an Inbuilt Protocol
268 269 271 273 274 274 275 275 276 278
17.3 Controlling the Real Robot
280 286 288 290
17.4 Resources 17.5 Summary 18.1 18.2 18.3 18 Contests with RobotBASIC RobotBASIC Based Contests Types of Contests Scoring a Contest
296 397 299 299 300 301
CONTENTS xix
18.3.1 Scoring with the Points System 18.3.2 Scoring with the Battery 18.3.3 Scoring with the Quality of Code
301 302 302
18.4 Constructing Contest Environments 18.5 Summary 18.6 Suggested Activities 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19 RobotBASIC in the Classroom RobotBASIC within the Learning Process RobotBASIC as a Motivator RobotBASIC within the Teaching Process RobotBASIC at Every Level of Education
19.4.1 19.4.2 19.4.3 19.4.4 Grade School Middle School High School College Level
302 303 303 305 306 307 307 308
308 308 308 309
19.5 Summary 19.6 Suggested Teaching Tasks
19.6.1 19.6.2 19.6.3 19.6.4 Grade School Middle School High School College Students
309 310
310 310 310 310
PART 5 APPENDICES Appendix A The RobotBASIC IDE A.1 The Editor Screen A.2 The Terminal Screen A.3 The Help Screen A.4 The Debugger Screen Appendix B The RobotBASIC Language B.1 Statements B.2 Comments B.3 Assignment Statements B.4 Command Statements B.5 Labels B.6 Flow-Control Statements
311 313 313 315 317 317 319 319 320 321 322 322 323
xx CONTENTS
B.7 Expressions
B.7.1 B.7.2 B.7.3 B.7.4 B.7.5 B.7.6 B.7.7 Numbers Strings Simple Variables Arrays Operators Constants Functions
324 325 325 326 327 332 333
Appendix C Commands, Functions, and Other Details C.1 Labels
C.1.1 Alpha-Numerical Style 1 C.1.2 Alpha-Numerical Style 2 C.1.3 Numerical Style
335 336
336 336 337
C.2 C.3 C.4 C.5 C.6
Assignment Statement Expressions Strings Variables Flow-Control Statements
C.6.1 C.6.2 C.6.3 C.6.4 C.6.5 C.6.6 C.6.7 C.6.8 C.6.9 C.6.10 C.6.11 C.6.12 C.7.1 C.7.2 C.7.3 C.7.4 C.7.5 C.7.6 If-Then Statement If-ElseIf Statement For-Next Loop Repeat-Until Loop While-Wend Loop Break Statement Continue Statement Case Construct GoSub Statement OnError Statemet End Command Goto Statement Input and Output Commands Screen and Graphics Commands Array Commands Array Math Commands Other Commands DrawShape Details
337 338 338 339 339
339 340 340 341 342 342 342 342 343 344 344 344
C.7 Command Statements
345 350 355 357 359 360
CONTENTS xxi
C.8 Functions
C.8.1 C.8.2 C.8.3 C.8.4 C.8.5 C.8.6 C.8.7 C.8.8 C.8.9 C.8.10 C.8.11 C.8.12 C.8.13 C.8.14 C.9.1 C.9.2 C.9.3 C.9.4 C.9.5 Trigonometric Functions Cartesian to Polar Functions Polar to Cartesian Functions Logarithmic and Exponential Functions Sign Conversion Functions Float to Integer Conversion Functions Number and String Conversion Functions String Manipulation Functions Time and Date Functions Probability Functions Statistical Functions Array Functions Other Functions Formatting Codes and Logic General Information Simulator Commands Simulator Functions Simulator Commands Listed Alphabetically Simulator Functions Listed Alphabetically
361 362 362 362 363 363 363 364 365 366 366 367 369 371
C.9 The Robot Simulator Commands and Functions
372 373 376 379 379
C.10 Commands and Functions Listed Alphabetically
C.10.1 Commands C.10.2 Functions
380 381
Appendix D Ports and Serial Input/Output D.1 General Information D.2 Serial I/O Commands D.3 Parallel Ports I/O Commands D.4 Virtual Parallel Port I/O Protocol D.5 General Ports I/O Commands D.6 Robot Simulator Serial I/O Protocol Index
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PREFACE
The eld of hobby robotics has many parallels to personal computing. If you wanted to own a computer in the 1970s, you had to build it yourself. Less than a decade later, you could buy a fully assembled computer and people quickly discovered that programming a computer led to far more enjoyment, satisfaction, and productivity than constructing one. In the 1980s robot hobbyists spent most of their time building robots from wood and sheet metal. They powered their creations with surplus parts like windshield wiper motors salvaged from car junkyards. So much time was spent in the construction phase that minimal thought was given to the electronic aspects of the project many of the early robots were controlled with doorbell buttons and relays. As the personal computer became more powerful a more sophisticated robotics hobbyist began to evolve. They learned more about electronics and started building crude sensors and motor control circuitry that, along with a personal computer, gave their robots, at least, the potential to interact with their environments. These new hobbyists renewed the dream that intelligent robots could actually be built. Unfortunately, most of the people interested in robotics still lacked the required electronics skills and knowledge. In the years that followed, many books and magazines were published that promised to help robot enthusiasts create circuitry to give their robots more intelligence. However, often, due to complexity and lack of experience, many people had trouble duplicating the authors works. Despite all these dif culties, the desire to build personal robots did not diminish. New companies emerged offering robot kits that required minimal experience to build and actuate. These early kits were not programmable, and thus did not satisfy the hobbyists desire to create intelligent machines. Nowadays there are many companies that offer sophisticated sensors and embedded computers that make it possible to build intelligent, capable and useful robots. Today, you can buy electronic compasses, ultrasonic range nders, GPS systems, infrared perimeter sensors, line and drop-off detectors, color detectors, electronic accelerometers, and even cameras. Reasonable knowledge and often a lot of time are still required to interface these devices to a robot s microcontroller, but the abundance of manuals and books make details available to any hobbyist willing to expend the effort. With sophisticated hardware available to everyone, hobby robotics is now able to turn its attention to programming, nally making it possible to create truly intelligent machines. Considering these developments, it is easy to feel like all the hard work has been done, when in fact, the real work is just beginning. Remember, personal computers were just a curiosity until the emphasis shifted from building them to programming
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