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FIGURE 4.6 Remote controlled test bench.
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REMOTE CONTROL ALGORITHMS
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FIGURE 4.7 Result of running the program of Fig. 4.6.
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4.6 Exercises
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1. Rewrite the programs in Figs. 4.1 and 4.2 to use mouse control as well as keyboard
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control. Also, see if you can change the keyboard commands from using letters to move the robot to using the arrow keys [see the command GetKeyE and the function KeyDown()].
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HINT: See how it is done in Fig. 4.6 and also study the GetKeyE command in Sec. C.7.
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Also see if you can improve on the program using GetKeyE and KeyDown().
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2. Experiment with the program in Fig. 4.6. Can you predict the sensory data as you are
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moving the robot around Why doesn t the robot move forward if you command it to do so when it is next to the red object Can you point to the lines of code in the program that achieve this 3. In the program of Fig. 4.4 comment out Line 02 by using //. What will this action achieve Now run the program and use the robot as a sketching tool to sketch your name for instance. You may need to toggle the pen up or down. Can you think of a way to make the robot draw different colors What would be needed to achieve this
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HINT: Use the keyboard to specify different colors maybe by using numbers or letters. Also you will need to increase the list of invisible colors to allow for the additional colors so as not to cause a crash.
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CHAPTER
RANDOM ROAMING
n Chap. 3 we learned about some of the sensors the robot can use to become aware of its environment. You saw some programs that utilized the sensors to make the robot stop before it crashed into walls. However, we often do not want the robot to just stop when it encounters an obstacle. We want it to be able to avoid the obstacle in some manner and continue moving. In Chap. 4 we manually controlled the robot so when the obstacles stopped the robot we were able to decide on how to circumvent them and commanded the robot on what to do to go around the object (by remote control). The aim of this book is to create an autonomous mobile robot. To be autonomous the robot has to be able to decide for itself how to circumvent obstacles. The robot has to be able to avoid or go around obstacles and continue along its route accomplishing the tasks it is supposed to complete all by itself. This chapter is the rst one where we will start giving the robot the ability to make decisions. Subsequent chapters will greatly enhance the robot s arti cial intelligence (AI) capabilities. There are various approaches to making the robot avoid obstacles: Turn around and travel in a direction away from the obstacle. Turn suf ciently to avoid the obstacle but not completely around. Negotiate around the obstacle until it clears it and then continue traveling in the same direction as before. Wait for the obstacle to move away; assuming the obstacle is a mobile object itself. A combination of all or some of the above.
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BUILDING BLOCKS
rLocate 400,300 while true // roam forever // forward until an object is found while rFeel( )=0 rForward 1 wend // turn 180 degrees plus or minus 30 degrees rTurn 150 + random (60) wend End
FIGURE 5.1 This program causes the robot to roam randomly around the screen.
This chapter will consider the rst two options. We will develop algorithms for the other options in later chapters.
5.1 What Is Random Roaming
Before we can make a robot tackle any challenges, it has to be able to move around its environment without any speci ed knowledge of the locations of objects. The robot has to be able to avoid obstacles and escape out of corners and tight spots in an intelligent manner. Here we will develop some algorithms that enable our robot to handle moving aimlessly around whatever environment we care to challenge it with. We say aimlessly because in this chapter the robot will have no speci c goal to achieve other than meandering around its world without getting stuck in one place for too long or crashing into obstacles. Type the program in Fig. 5.1 and run it. The inner (second) while-loop in the program checks to see if an object in the robot s path has triggered any of the robot s infrared sensors. If no objects are detected, the robot moves forward one pixel. This movement occurs as long as the loop continues to detect no objects in the robot s vicinity. Once an object is encountered, the whileloop ends and the program ow continues to the next statement. This statement causes the robot to turn. The number of degrees the robot turns is formed by adding 150 and a random number between 0 and 60. This produces a turn that is between 150 and 210 or 180 30 [see Sec. C.8 for details on Random()]. The outer ( rst) while-loop ensures that the two behaviors are repeated endlessly. The condition for the loop is while true. This means that the loop will always repeat since true is always true and will never become false to end the loop. When you run this program you will see the robot move around the room. Each time it encounters a wall, the robot will turn away using a random angle and then move forward again until another wall is encountered. This process will continue until you terminate the program by closing the terminal screen window.
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