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In previous programs, the robot simply turned away from objects it encountered. In order to give the robot some sort of personality, we added some randomness to the turns, but we can hardly claim that it is intelligent in its decisions. In fact, if you run the program you will observe behaviors that appear unintelligent, especially if there are a lot of obstacles. One such behavior is that the robot will occasionally make its random turn into objects and not away from them. There are several ways the robot can make better decisions. 5.4.1 USING SENSORY INFORMATION MORE EFFECTIVELY One way of improving the behavior of our robot is to make it decide which is the best way to turn, instead of just turning a random amount. It may not be clear what is the best way, but there is a simple idea that produces a very acceptable behavior. If the robot encounters an object and the sensors show it to be on its right side, then the robot should turn left. If the object is on the left side it should turn right. If the object is straight ahead the robot should turn completely around. In all these cases, we will add a little randomness to improve the robot s ability to cope with unforeseen circumstances. However, because the decisions are more intelligent to begin with, we won t need near as much randomness to be effective. In order to implement this improvement we need to be able to examine the status of individual sensors more ef ciently. Let s look at some techniques that can help. 5.4.1.1 Making Better Decisions To know if an object the robot encounters is on the left or right we must analyze the value of the individual bits in the sensory data. Figure 5.5 shows some example expressions that can help us analyze the infrared data. All of these expressions can be used as conditions in if and while statements. 5.4.1.2 Logical Operations The expressions in Fig. 5.5 are valuable, but are limited. RobotBASIC allows you to manipulate expressions using logical conditions. For example, you could test to see if either of the two right-hand sensors is triggered individually with a logical OR operation as shown in the following expression.
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rFeel()=2 OR rFeel()=1
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Expression rFeel() = 0 rFeel() rFeel() = 4 rFeel() = 3
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Situation that makes it true No sensors triggered Any sensor triggered Only the front sensor is triggered Only the two right-hand sensors are triggered (both must be trigger together)
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FIGURE 5.5 Example expressions for testing data from the infrared sensors.
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NOTE: This expression will not be true if both sensors are triggered together because in that case the sensor value will equal 3. In a complex expression like this one it is often important to use parenthesis to make sure certain portions of the expression are evaluated before others. See Sec. B.7.5 for more information on operator precedence.
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Notice this is very different from checking to see if rFeel() is equal to 3, which means both of the right-hand sensors must be triggered together and none of the others can be triggered. Logical operations are a great help when analyzing sensory data, but there are other ways that can be more ef cient or more appropriate in certain situations. 5.4.1.3 Bitwise Operations Below are two expressions that will perform almost the same test as the one in the previous section. That statement was true if either of the right infrared sensors were pressed alone. Both statements below will be true if either or both bumpers are pressed. Let s see how they work.
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rFeel() bAND 3 rFeel() & 3
In the above two statements, the RobotBASIC operators & and bAND (two options for doing the same operation) cause the infrared values to be bitwise ANDed with the number 3 (binary 0011). Bitwise simply means the values of each bit position of the two numbers are ANDed together. This means the answer for each position will be a one, only if that bit position in the rst number and the same bit position in the second number, are both ones. Lets look at some examples in Fig. 5.6 to make this clearer. The number we are bANDing with the sensor value is referred to as a mask because it hides some positions (using zeros in the mask) while allowing some to go through unchanged (using ones). As you can see from Fig. 5.6 the expression will be true when either or both of the positions speci ed by the mask is a one because the only bit positions in the sensor value that are not masked are those where the mask is a one. In this example, the output will be false only if neither of the speci ed sensor positions is triggered. As we proceed through the text, you will see how the use of bitwise and logical operations can help in analyzing the meaning of all sensory data so that the robot can make decisions on its own. Refer to Sec. B.7.5 for complete information on all the logical and bitwise operations available in RobotBASIC.
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