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A better algorithm would allow the robot to roam around until it nds the line and then commence the line-following routine. In this section we are going to combine random roaming as you have seen in Chap. 5 with the line following algorithm developed in Fig. 7.7. The requirement is to have the robot roam around until it encounters the line. Once it encounters the line it will acquire the line and follow it. The random-roaming algorithm developed in Chap. 5 (Fig. 5.3) will be modi ed slightly to allow for checking if a line is being sensed and stop roaming when it is. This way the robot can be placed anywhere and it will roam around until it encounters the line after which it starts following the line. The new program in Fig. 7.9 is a complete program except that it does not have the line-following subroutine (add one of your choice from those previously discussed). It is a modi cation of the base program in Fig. 7.1a. The changes are as follows:
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MainProgram: gosub DrawLine goSub InitializeRobot goSub RoamAround goSub FollowLine End //============================================================= InitializeRobot: repeat readmouse X,Y,b until b = 1 rLocate X,Y //locate the robot where the user clicked the mouse while b = 1 readmouse X,Y,b rTurn 1 //turn the robot while the mouse is being clicked delay 50 wend rInvisible Green //-- Green is a line not an object Return //============================================================= RoamAround: while True // move forward until an object is found while (rFeel( )=0) and (rBumper( )=0) and !rSense() rForward 1 wend if rSense() then Break // turn 180 degrees plus or minus 30 degrees rTurn 150 + random (60) wend Return //============================================================= DrawLine: linewidth 4 setcolor Green Data Coord;-257, 158, 492, 166, 591, 249, 616, 401 Data Coord; 565, 506, 345, 515, 257, 364, 118, 413 Data Coord; 62, 243, 185, 217, 256, 157 MPolygon Coord return //=============================================================
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FIGURE 7.9 Roaming around to acquire the line then follow it.
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In the MainProgram a line is added just before calling the FollowLine, to call the subroutine RoamAround, and the line that caused the robot to move forward 10 pixels is removed. The InitializeRobot subroutine has been changed to allow the user of the program to place the robot anywhere and give it an initial heading by using the mouse. This allows for good testing of the roaming and line acquisition. A new subroutine RoamAround has been added to do the work of roaming. The LineFollow subroutine is exactly the same as the one in Fig. 7.8 and is not repeated here. You will need to incorporate Fig. 7.8 (or another from the ones developed earlier) with Fig. 7.9 to make the program work. The DrawLine subroutine is modi ed to draw using the mPolygon command. This is a much more compact way of drawing lines and shapes on the screen. We will discuss this in detail later.
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7.4.1 THE ROAMAROUND SUBROUTINE The RoamAround subroutine is very similar to the one given in Fig. 5.3 of Chap. 5. The only change is an added check to see if any line sensors are on. If there are any active line sensors, the roaming is abandoned by using the Break statement to break out of the while-loop. This of course causes the Return statement to be executed, which causes the subroutine to return back to the main program, which then calls the FollowLine subroutine.
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7.4.2 THE InitializeRobot SUBROUTINE The InitializeRobot subroutine allows the user to place the robot at any position on the screen and to give it an initial heading. The Repeat-Until loop keeps tracking the mouse until the user presses the left button (b 1). The robot is then placed at the position indicated with the default heading of North. If the user keeps the left mouse button clicked the while-loop will keep rotating the robot as long as the button is pressed. The Delay 50 statement is necessary to avoid turning the robot too rapidly for accurate control. Finally the rInvisible command is used to set the color of the line as a nonobstacle.
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7.4.3 THE Data STATEMENT AND mPolygon COMMAND The original DrawLine subroutine of Fig. 7.1a used a series of LineTo statements following a GotoXY statement to draw the desired line. This works, but the program can become quite long if we have a substantial shape with many points. The RobotBASIC command, mPolygon can draw any number of consecutive lines in one command. This makes specifying the points compact and the execution is much faster than the LineTo-method. We are going to use this construct to draw a racetrack for our robot to follow. (Refer to Sec. C.7 for all the commands used below. Also refer to Sec. B.7.4 for more information about arrays.)
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