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DEVELOPING A TOOLBOX OF BEHAVIORS
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To use mPolygon you have to create a one-dimensional array that contains the coordinates of the points that will form the lines to be drawn. You do this in RobotBASIC with a series of Data statements. The Data command creates an array and puts the data that follows it into successive elements of the array. An array is a collection of data elements. Let s say we have ve numbers that we want to use in a program. We could use ve different variable names in this manner:
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Num_1 = 9 Num_2 = 8 Etc., etc.
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This can become quite tedious if we have a lot of numbers to specify. Also later on in the program it can be quite hard to refer to the numbers since each has a distinct name. A better way to do all this is:
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Data Nums; 9,8, etc., etc.
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Nums is the name of the array (of course, you can use any name you want here). The semicolon (;) is necessary after the name of the array. The comma (,) is necessary to separate the various data elements. You can have as many elements as you desire. If the data is too long to t on one line you can have as many Data statements as you need on as many lines as you need. So long as they all have the same array name the elements will be put in the same array. Later on in the program you can refer to the nth element by saying Nums[n-1]. The reason you use n-1 and not n is because the counting of element numbers starts at 0 not at 1. So the rst element is element number 0, the second element is element number 1 and so on. So the nth element would be element number n-1. For an example, let s convert the data in the DrawLine subroutine of Fig. 7.1 to an array. We would use the statements you see in Fig. 7.10. This is much more ef cient than before. The for-loop draws the line, but instead of using many LineTo statements we now use only one inside the loop to draw the line. The function MaxDim() is used to nd out the number of elements in the array. Of course we could have counted these by hand and
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DrawLine: Data Points; 170, 71, 160, 72, 145, 80, Data Points; 125,110, 120,140, 130,200, Data Points; 145,300, 200,350, 300,325, Data Points; 600,450, 600,400, 650,200, LineWidth 4 SetColor Green GotoXY Points[0],Points[1] for I = 2 to MaxDim(Points,1)-1 Step 2 LineTo Points[I],Points[I+1] next Return
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140, 90, 130,100 140,250, 130,270 450,375, 450,450 500,350
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FIGURE 7.10
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A better line drawing method.
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FOLLOWING A LINE
DrawLine: Data Points;-170, 71, Data Points; 125,110, Data Points; 145,300, Data Points; 600,450, LineWidth 4 SetColor Green mPolygon Points Return
160, 72, 120,140, 200,350, 600,400,
145, 80, 130,200, 300,325, 650,200,
140, 90, 130,100 140,250, 130,270 450,375, 450,450 500,350
FIGURE 7.11 Using mPolygon to draw polygons.
put the number (38) instead of using the function. The MaxDim() function eliminates the inconvenience of having to recount every time we add or remove points. You might be wondering why the loop count started at 2 not 1. This is because we used the rst pair of elements to GotoXY to the start of the line. Also notice the use of Step 2 in the for-loop. This is because the elements are in pairs of point coordinates (x, y). Notice the count goes up to one less than the number of elements. This is (as discussed above) because the element number counting starts at 0 not 1. Put the subroutine in Fig. 7.10 in place of the DrawLine subroutine in the base program of Fig. 7.1a and verify that it performs the same action. The routine is now only 12 lines, much smaller than the original 23-line program. We can do even more saving. In Fig. 7.11 there is no for-loop to draw the lines, no GotoXY or LineTo commands. There is only one command after de ning the data, mPolygon. This one command does the same action as the code in Fig. 7.10. Actually, this command does a lot more; see Sec. C.7 for details. Try this new subroutine by placing it into the base program of Fig. 7.1a in place of the old DrawLine subroutine. Notice that the rst data element in the routine of Fig. 7.11. is now a negative number. This is to designate it as a GotoXY point not a LineTo point for the purposes of the mPolygon command. Read all about this in Sec. C.7. Now that you are familiar with the mPolygon command, refer back to Fig. 7.9 to see how it is utilized there.
7.5 Summary
In this chapter you have: Been introduced to several algorithms for following a line. Seen how proper interpretation of the sensory data can improve the robot s performance while carrying out complex tasks. Learned how arrays, Data, and mPolygon can be used to draw more ef ciently. Seen how an array is a more ef cient way to store and manipulate data. Learned that some algorithms may work properly under certain environmental conditions but fail if these conditions are modi ed. Now, try to do the exercises in the next section.
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