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a motor for robotic locomotion, or as the demo circuit pictured here does (see Fig. 3.5) to spin an American flag. The attractiveness of the solar engine circuit is that it operates perpetually, or at least until one of the components breaks, which means it should operate for years.
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Batteries are by far the most commonly used electric power supply for robotics. Batteries are so commonplace that it s easy to take them for granted. An understanding of batteries will help you choose batteries that will optimize your robot s design. The rest of this chapter will examine batteries. There are hundreds of different kinds of batteries. We will look at the most common batteries employed for hobbyist use: carbonzinc, alkaline, nickel-cadmium, lead-acid, and lithium.
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Battery power
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Regardless of battery type, battery power is measured in amp-hours, that is, the current (measured in amps or milliamps) multiplied by the time (hours) that current is flowing from the battery. What does that mean to us Well, it s pretty straightforward. Suppose a battery is rated at 2 amp-hours (Ah). This means the battery can supply 2 A of current for 1 h. If we reduce the current draw from the battery to only 1 A, the battery will then last 2 h. If the current is further reduced to 500 milliamps (mA), the battery will last 4 h. If you do the math for the three different scenarios, you will see battery life (time) is in direct proportion to the current draw:
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Current 2 1 A A time 1h 2h 4h battery rating 2 Ah 2 Ah 2 Ah
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It becomes an easy matter to rearrange the equation to tell you how long a battery will last given a particular current draw. For instance, suppose your robot draws 0.35 A (350 mA). If you are using the same battery (2 Ah) as just discussed, then divide the battery rating (2 Ah) by the current draw (0.35 A) to find the time the battery will last (5.7 h). Mileage will vary. Batteries provide more access to their electric power rating when used intermittently, which allows time for the battery to recuperate. Continuous duty is efficient if the load
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is light. For robotics, especially when powering drive motors and components, we often don t have this option. In this case one tries to provide greater battery capacity.
Battery voltage
Battery voltage varies throughout the life of a battery. If you measure the voltage on a fresh D-sized 1.5V alkaline battery, it will read approximately 1.65 V. As the battery discharges, its voltage drops. The battery is considered dead when the voltage drops to 1.0 V. Typical discharge curves for carbon-zinc, alkaline, and nickelcadmium (NiCd) batteries are illustrated in Fig. 3.6. Notice that a fresh NiCd 1.5V battery actually delivers about 1.35 V. While its initial voltage is lower, its discharge curve is fairly flat compared to that of carbon-zinc and alkaline batteries delivering a constant 1.2 V.
Primary batteries
Primary batteries are one-time-use batteries. The batteries we will look at in this class deliver 1.5 V per cell. They are designed to deliver their rated electrical capacity and then be discarded. When building robotic systems, discarding depleted primary batteries can become expensive. However, one advantage to using primary batteries is that
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3.6 Discharge curves for common batteries
they typically have a greater electrical capacity than rechargeables. If one is engaged in a function (i.e., a robotic war) that requires the highest power density available for one-shot use, primary batteries may be the way to go. Rating primary batteries As you may have guessed, there are a number of primary batteries available. The differences in batteries relate to the chemistry used in the battery to produce electricity. The choice of a primary battery is a tradeoff of price versus energy density, shelf life, temperature range, discharge slope, and peak current capacity. Carbon-zinc At the low end of primary batteries is the carbon-zinc battery. This battery hasn t changed much since 1868 when it was developed by George Leclanche. The carbon battery has a low energy density [1 to 2 watthours per cubic inch (Wh/in3 )], poor high-current performance, sloping discharge curve, and bad low-temperature performance. It is inexpensive but obsolete. Alkaline-manganese This is simply an alkaline battery. It has an energy density of 2 to 3 Wh/in3, improved low-temperature performance, and a sloping discharge curve, not as severe as carbon-zinc batteries. Its cost is moderate. Lithium This is a premium battery with a high energy density (8 Wh/in3), excellent low-temperature and high-temperature performance, and a long shelf life (15 years). It is also lightweight, but expensive.
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