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Movement and drive systems
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IN THIS CHAPTER WE WILL LOOK AT A FEW MOVEMENT AND drive components that may be used in robots. All the components discussed in this chapter either have sample circuits contained in this chapter or are used in robots elsewhere in this book. Here is a list of the components we will work with: air muscles, nitinol wire, stepper motors, geared direct current (DC) motors, servo motors, and solenoids.
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Air muscles
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An air muscle is a simple pneumatic device developed in the 1950s by J. L. McKibben. Like biological muscles, air muscles contract when activated. An interesting fact about air muscles is that they provide a reasonable working copy of biological muscles, so much so that researchers can use air muscles attached to a skeleton at primary biological muscle locations to study biomechanics and low-level neural properties of biological muscles. In published papers, air muscles are also referred to as McKibben air muscles, McKibben pneumatic artificial muscles, and Rubbertuator. I will refer to them simply as air muscles.
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Air muscles have applications in robotics, biomechanics, artificial limb replacement, and industry. The principal reasons why experimenters and hobbyists will like air muscles are their ease of use (as compared to standard pneumatic cylinders) and their simple
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Movement and drive systems
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construction. Air muscles are soft, lightweight, and compliant; they have a high power-to-weight ratio (400:1); and they can be twisted axially and used on unaligned mountings and provide contractive force around bends.
How air muscles work
The two primary components to the air muscle are a soft, stretchable inner rubber tube and a braided polyester mesh sleeve (see Fig. 4.1). The rubber tube is called an internal bladder and is positioned inside the braided mesh sleeve. Additional components of the air muscle are an air fitting located on one end and two mechanical fittings (loops), each located on one end of the air muscle, that allow one to attach the air muscle to devices.
Soft rubber tube 4"
7" Braided mesh sleeve Material: Polyester, size 3/8" nom
Internal rubber tube
Air fitting
Loop
Loop Mesh sleeve
Relaxed & stretched Active & pressurized 25% contraction
4.1 Air muscle construction and function
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When the internal bladder is pressurized, it expands and pushes against the inside of the braided mesh sleeve, forcing the diameter of the braided mesh to expand. The physical characteristic of the mesh sleeve is that it contracts in proportion to the degree its diameter is forced to increase. This produces the contractive force of the air muscle. It is important to note that to operate properly, the air muscle must be in a stretched or loaded position when it is in a resting state. If not, when the air muscle is activated, there will be little if any contraction. Typically the air muscle can contract to approximately 25 percent of its length.
Nitinol wire
Nitinol is a metal that belongs to a class of materials called shaped memory alloys (SMAs). Nitinol is commonly sold in wire form. When heated, the material can contract up to 10 percent of its length. The contraction of the material produces linear motion. In addition to the contraction property, the material also exhibits a shaped memory effect (SME). The SME is a unique property of this alloy. When heated to its critical transition temperature, the material automatically returns to a predefined shape. The predefined shape is one that the material is trained (heat annealed) to remember. The material is formed into the training shape. The material is then forcibly confined to the training shape as the material is annealed (heated) above its transitional temperature. This realigns the crystalline structure to the shape. Now the object will return to this shape whenever it is heated to its transition temperature. So a trained object could be twisted and folded out of shape and then heated to return the object back to its original shape. These unique properties of SMAs rely upon the crystalline structure of the material. The shape-resuming force approaches 22,000 pounds per square inch (lb/in2). It s very unlikely that anyone will be working with such large cross sections of material. Even thin wires of the material produce an impressive force. For instance, a 6-mil wire generates a contractive force of 11 ounces. When nitinol wire contracts up to 10 percent of its overall length, its volume remains constant. As the wire contracts, its diameter increases proportionally, keeping the net volume of the wire constant. The easiest way to heat nitinol wire is by passing an electric DC current through it (see Fig. 4.2). However, using a steady DC current
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