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Movement and drive systems
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H-Bridge Function
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(c) 4.16 H-bridge using switches
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Pulse-width modulation
The H-bridge controls the on and off function as well as the direction of DC motors. The function of the H-bridge can be enhanced by using PWM to control the speed of the motor. The PWM signal is illustrated in Fig. 4.18. When the PWM signal is high, the motor is on; when low, the motor is off. Since the signal turns the motor on and off very quickly, the voltage delivered to the motor becomes an average of the time on versus the time period of the cycle (T-on/Tperiod). The greater the on time, the higher the average voltage. The average voltage (VDC steady-state) is always less than the voltage delivered (Vcc). PWM essentially controls the motor speed. Motors are inductive loads. When current is switched on and off, a transient voltage is generated in the (motor) windings that can damage the solid-state components used in the H-bridge. This transient voltage can be controlled by using a snubber diode bridged across each transistor, as illustrated in Fig. 4.19. The snubber diode dissipates the transient voltage by creating a voltage path directly to ground for the transient voltage. This effectively protects the semiconductor the diode is bridged over. The snubber diodes should be rated to handle the normal current the motor typically draws.
Period T-on ON OFF Vcc VAverage GND
ON OFF 4.18 Pulse-width modulation for H-bridge
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4.19 Transistor H-bridge with diode protection
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Sensors
TYPICALLY ROBOTIC SENSORS MIMIC BIOLOGICAL SENSES like hearing, sight, touch, smell, and taste. Balance and body position derived from the inner ear are sometimes considered a sixth sense. Biological senses are neurally based, while robotic senses are electrically based. One could argue the point that they are both electrically based by pointing out that both the neural pathways and signals pass an electrochemical signal. However, neural sensors function differently than electrically based sensors. So, not to confuse technologies, it s important to define them as electrically based. If one wants to truly imitate biological senses, neural sensors are needed. The human ear is an example of a neural sensor. Let s examine it. The human ear is not a linear instrument. Its response to sound is logarithmic. Because of this, a tenfold increase in sound intensity is only perceived by the human ear as a doubling of sound volume. In contrast, a common sound sensor, for instance, a microphone, has a linear response to sound intensity. Therefore, a tenfold increase in sound intensity is read by a computer (microcontroller or electronic circuit) as a tenfold increase in sound intensity. Sensors detect and/or measure an aspect of the environment and can produce a proportional electrical signal. The signal information must then be read or interpreted by the intelligence [central processing unit (CPU)] or neural network on the robot. Although we may categorize the sensors as they relate to human senses, sensors are typically divided by the type of energy that the sensor responds
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Sensors
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to, such as light, sound, or heat. The sensors one incorporates into a robot will depend upon its intended operating environment and application.
Signal conditioning
When determining which sensor to use for a robot, one must decide how the robot will read the sensor signal. Many sensors are resistance-type, meaning that the sensor varies its resistance in proportion to the energy being detected. When the sensor is placed in a simple voltage divider network, it outputs an electrical signal whose amplitude varies in proportion to the energy it senses. If the robot is required to read the actual energy intensity (analog), an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter is needed. A/D converters can measure the electrical signal and output an equivalent binary number. A/D converters will require a microcontroller or digital circuit to function properly and extrapolate the data. In many cases an A/D converter isn t required to read sensor signals. Instead of an A/D convertor one uses a comparator.
As its name implies, a comparator compares two voltages. One is a reference voltage that we, the designers, set. The other voltage is derived from the sensor (via the voltage divider). The comparator can output one of two signals: high or low. The high signal is 5 V and the low signal is 0 V. The output signal from the comparator depends upon the magnitude of the two voltages on its two input lines. There are three possible choices. The sensor signal is less than the reference voltage, equal to the reference voltage, or greater than the reference voltage.
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