vb.net barcode scanner tutorial The Pros and Cons of Smart Cards in Software

Printing ANSI/AIM Code 39 in Software The Pros and Cons of Smart Cards

The Pros and Cons of Smart Cards
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There is sufficient evidence in the computer industry that smart cards greatly improve the convenience and security of any transaction. They provide tamperproof storage of user and account identity. They protect against a full range of security threats, from careless storage of user pass-
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words to sophisticated system hacks. But smart cards, like other authentication systems, are vulnerable to various attacks. Moreover, a major drawback of smart card technology is price. The cost is considerably higher than that of software-based access control (such as passwords), creating a barrier to widespread distribution of smart card technology. As more units are sold, however, we should begin to see prices fall, making smart cards and their associated hardware more affordable.
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A JavaCard is a typical smart card: It conforms to all smart card standards and thus requires no change to existing smart card-aware applications. However, a JavaCard has a twist that makes it unique: A Java Virtual Machine (JVM) is implemented in its read-only memory (ROM) mask. The JVM controls access to all the smart card resources, such as memory and I/O, and thus essentially serves as the smart card s operating system. The JVM executes a Java bytecode subset on the smart card, ultimately allowing the functions normally performed off-card to be performed on-card in the form of trusted loyalty applications. For example, instead of using the card to simply store a private key, you can now use that private key to perform a digital signature. The advantages of this approach are obvious. Instead of programming the card s code in hardware-specific assembly language code, you can develop new applications in portable Java. Moreover, applications can be securely loaded to the card post-issuance after it s been issued to the customer. In this way, vendors can enhance JavaCards with new functions over time. For example, bankcards that initially give customers secure Internet access to their bank accounts might be upgraded to include e-cash, frequent flier miles, and e-mail certificates.
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History and Standards
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Schlumberger, a leading smart card manufacturer, provided one of the first working prototypes of a Java-based card in 1996. The original implementation was made up of a smart card that housed a lightweight Java bytecode interpreter. As work continued in this field, SUN Microsystems
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issued the first JavaCard specification in October 1996. This specification was based on Schlumberger s experience. It was not until February 1997 that the concept of a JavaCard finally took off, at which time Schlumberger and other smart card manufacturers formed the JavaCard Forum. By the end of 1997, the JavaCard Forum had released a new specification, JavaCard 2.0. This specification answered many of the shortcomings of the original specification and included many new concepts. Another standard, which is of importance to JavaCards as well as to smart cards, is the OpenCard Framework (OCF). OCF, which was created by the OpenCard Consortium, is made up of many of the leading smart card and JavaCard manufacturers, as well as many application developers, such as Dallas Semiconductors, Gemplus, IBM Corp., Visa International, SUN Microsystems, and others. OCF, similar to the JavaCard Forum, has been the driving force for the development Java-based systems. Unlike the JavaCard Forum, which provides development specifications for applications to be run on-card, OCF provides the development specifications for applications to be run in computers and terminals.
NOTE:
The application specifications provided by OCF are for use by systems that will communicate not only with JavaCards, but also with any smart card that follows the PKCS #11 standard.
JavaCard Operations
A JavaCard operates like a typical smart card. When the smart card reader sends a command, the JavaCard processes it and returns an answer. To maintain compatibility with existing applications for smart cards, a single JavaCard can process only one command at a time. Figure 9-8 illustrates the JavaCard components.
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