vb.net barcode scanner webcam A Layman s Guide to a Subset of ASN.1, BER, and DER in Software

Painting Code39 in Software A Layman s Guide to a Subset of ASN.1, BER, and DER

A Layman s Guide to a Subset of ASN.1, BER, and DER
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Table B-1 Some Types and Their UniversalClass Tags
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Type INTEGER BIT STRING OCTET STRING NULL OBJECT IDENTIFIER SEQUENCE and SEQUENCE OF SET and SET OF PrintableString T61String IA5String UTCTime Tag Number (Decimal) 2 3 4 5 6 16 17 19 20 22 23
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Tag Number (Hexadecimal) 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 13 14 16 17
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Section 2.1: Simple Types
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Simple types are those not consisting of components; they are the atomic types. ASN.1 defines several; the types that are relevant to the PKCS standards are the following:
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I I I I I
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BIT STRING, an arbitrary string of bits (1 s and 0 s) IA5String, an arbitrary string of IA5 (ASCII) characters INTEGER, an arbitrary integer NULL, a null value OBJECT IDENTIFIER, an object identifier, which is a sequence of integer components that identify an object such as an algorithm or attribute type OCTET STRING, an arbitrary string of octets (eight-bit values) PrintableString, an arbitrary string of printable characters
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Appendix B
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T61String, an arbitrary string of T.61 (eight-bit) characters UTCTime, a coordinated universal time or Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) value
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Simple types fall into two categories: string types and nonstring types. BIT STRING, IA5String, OCTET STRING, PrintableString, T61String, and UTCTime are string types. String types can be viewed, for the purposes of encoding, as consisting of components, where the components are substrings. This view allows one to encode a value whose length is not known in advance (e.g., an octet string value input from a file stream) with a constructed, indefinite-length encoding (see Section 3). The string types can be given size constraints limiting the length of values.
Section 2.2: Structured Types
Structured types are those consisting of components. ASN.1 defines four, all of which are relevant to the PKCS standards: 1. SEQUENCE, an ordered collection of one or more types 2. SEQUENCE OF, an ordered collection of zero or more occurrences of a given type 3. SET, an unordered collection of one or more types 4. SET OF, an unordered collection of zero or more occurrences of a given type The structured types can have optional components, possibly with default values.
Section 2.3: Implicitly and Explicitly Tagged Types
Tagging is useful to distinguish types within an application; it is also commonly used to distinguish component types within a structured type. For instance, optional components of a SET or SEQUENCE type are typically given distinct context-specific tags to avoid ambiguity. There are two ways to tag a type: implicitly and explicitly.
A Layman s Guide to a Subset of ASN.1, BER, and DER
Implicitly tagged types are derived from other types by changing the tag of the underlying type. Implicit tagging is denoted by the ASN.1 keywords [class number] IMPLICIT (see Section 5.1). Explicitly tagged types are derived from other types by adding an outer tag to the underlying type. In effect, explicitly tagged types are structured types consisting of one component, the underlying type. Explicit tagging is denoted by the ASN.1 keywords [class number] EXPLICIT (see Section 5.2).
The keyword [class number] alone is the same as explicit tagging, except when the module in which the ASN.1 type is defined has implicit tagging by default. ( Modules are among the advanced features not described in this note.) For purposes of encoding, an implicitly tagged type is considered the same as the underlying type, except that the tag is different. An explicitly tagged type is considered like a structured type with one component, the underlying type. Implicit tags result in shorter encodings, but explicit tags may be necessary to avoid ambiguity if the tag of the underlying type is indeterminate (e.g., the underlying type is CHOICE or ANY).
Section 2.4: Other Types
Other types in ASN.1 include the CHOICE and ANY types. The CHOICE type denotes a union of one or more alternatives; the ANY type denotes an arbitrary value of an arbitrary type, where the arbitrary type is possibly defined in the registration of an object identifier or integer value.
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