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NetBIOS itself is not a communications protocol, but a programming interface for establishing and managing network-based services. Messages between NetBIOS applications must be carried over the network by a transport-layer protocol. Popular transport protocols include NetBEUI, IPX, DECNet, and TCP/IP. Samba uses NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NetBT) as defined in RFCs 1001 and 1002 as its transport service. As we shall see later in the chapter, the use of NetBT as a transport is critical when scaling NetBIOS services in large networks.
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Name Service
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NetBIOS name service is represented as a flat, non-hierarchical namespace. Each
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service entry is identified by a 16-byte string that constitutes either a unique name for the service or the group name of which it is a member (Figure 3.3). The first 15 bytes of the string represent the alphanumeric machine or group name. The 16th byte is a hexadecimal number that indicates the machine's or group's resource type (Table 3.1).
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Figure 3.3: Setting NetBIOS name and workgroup
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Table 3.1 NetBIOS Names
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Characters 1-15:
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Machine or Group Name
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<a z, A Z, 09, !, @, #, $, %, ^, &, (, ), , *, ', {, }, ., ~>
Character 16:
Unique Resource Type
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<00> <03> <06> <1B> <1F> <20> <21> <BE> <BF>
Workstation Service Name Messenger Service Name RAS Server Domain Master Browser NetDDE Service Server Service RAS Client Network Monitor Agent Network Monitor Utility
Group Resource Type
<1C> <1D> <1E> <20>
Domain Group Name Master Browser Name Group Name for Elections Internet Group
Conflicts between resource names residing within the same logical subnet or workgroup can be resolved by partitioning the namespace through the use of a NetBIOS scope identifier (Figure 3.4). This is a character string used in conjunction with the NetBIOS name to enforce uniqueness in the namespace. The total length of the NetBIOS scope plus the NetBIOS name cannot exceed 256 characters. Note that the use of NetBIOS scopes effectively isolates resources from communicating with each other.
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Figure 3.4: Setting NetBIOS scope
Each application registers its presence in the namespace by making a NetBIOS Add Name or Add Group Name call. The service or group name is then reserved in the namespace until specifically released by a Delete call or the machine on which the service resides is shut down. Registered names and resource types can be queried by invoking the Windows nbtstat command. In Example 3.1, nbstat is used to display the registered NetBIOS resource table for a machine named Wizard. The listing indicates that Wizard is a member of the group Eyrie and it has one connected user, DeRoest. The reserved name _MSBROWSE_ delineates Wizard as the registered master browser for the group. Example 3.1 NetBIOS Machine Listing C:\nbtstat a Wizard NetBIOS Remote Machine Name Table Name Type Status ----------------------------------------------------WIZARD <00> UNIQUE Registered EYRIE <00> GROUP Registered WIZARD <03> UNIQUE Registered
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WIZARD EYRIE DEROEST EYRIE .._MSBROWSE__..
<20> <1E> <03> <1D> <01>
UNIQUE GROUP UNIQUE UNIQUE GROUP
Registered Registered Registered Registered Registered
NetBIOS name service uses two methods for registering, resolving, and releasing NetBIOS names, groups, and addresses. The first method administers the namespace using network broadcasts. The client machine queries or announces a name on the network as a broadcast and then waits for a response to the request. Because delivery is not guaranteed, the client may have to retransmit its request a number of times before it is resolved. This method works in small networks but quickly breaks down on large networks due to heavy broadcast traffic. The second method for managing the namespace uses point-to-point communication. Name registration and IP address resolution requests are directed to a NetBIOS Name Server (NBNS) in a manner similar to Internet dynamic DNS. NetBIOS point-to-point name service is defined in RFC 1001 and RFC 1002 and implemented as Microsoft's Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) (Figure 3.5).
Figure 3.5: WINS configuration
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NetBIOS name-to-IP address mappings can also be hard coded in LMHOSTS tables and stored on each machine. The LMHOSTS table is a flat ASCII file of IP address and name pairs. If both WINS and LMHOSTS information are available for resolving names, clients will first consult their local NetBIOS cache and then WINS before using LMHOSTS information. It is also possible to prime the client NetBIOS cache at system startup with LMHOSTS entries that have been flagged as #PRE (Example 3.2). Example 3.2 LMHOSTS Stanza 149.110.5.12 Wizard #PRE
The broadcast and point-to-point capabilities of various LAN clients for name-to-address resolution are based on their node type as defined in Table 3.2. Table 3.2 Name Resolution Methods
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