vb.net pdf 417 reader Peers, Workgroups, Domains, Forests in Software

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Peers, Workgroups, Domains, Forests
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One of the first things that comes to mind when planning a networking infrastructure for resource sharing is how to control access to those resources.
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In a small homogenous MS Windows environment, it might be possible to operate on a friendly peer-to-peer basis. You let me play with your toys and I'll think about letting you play with mine. This type of environment is usually implemented as a workgroup (Figure 3.6). Workgroups provide a means of grouping together users and resources that share a common work profile. Workgroups also simplify the task of locating resources in the network. It may not be necessary to browse for a particular resource on each and every workstation on the network, because it may be that the resource is known to reside in a particular workgroup, thus reducing the number of systems to be checked.
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Figure 3.6: Workgroup model
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Each user in the workgroup usually has autonomous control over the resources on the
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desktop. A user can assign passwords to local resources to limit access under sharelevel security (Figure 3.7). Share-level security regulates access by requiring knowledge of the appropriate password. Access control by user and group is called user level. This requires the presence of a Windows NT computer that acts as a security server. The absence of a security server in the workgroup model means that each user must have an account and password stored locally on each of the workgroup computers used. It also means that each user must know all the passwords required to access the various resources available in the local or remote workgroups. Workgroups may seem like an administrative nightmare, but it is possible for a system administrator to exert some level of control over resource sharing through the use of system policies and profiles. Password management will most likely remain problem.
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Figure 3.7: Setting share level passwords
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Centralized management of accounts, passwords, and shares can be more easily realized by implementing a Windows domain model for the network. A Windows domain is a logical collection of users and computers that share a common security policy and namespace. In each domain, one or more Windows NT computers, called domain controllers, act as a locus for administering and resolving access to all the resources located in the domain. The Primary Domain Controller (PDC) maintains a directory of all the account, group, and password information for the domain. This directory is called the Security Accounts Manager (SAM). To log in to a computer or access a resource in the domain, the domain controller is first consulted to validate user credentials before access
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is granted to the resource (Figure 3.8).
Figure 3.8: Simple domain model
SAM information can be replicated on one or more additional domain controllers called Backup Domain Controllers (BDC). The presence of a BDC assists in ensuring fault tolerance for the SAM directory. A BDC will also respond to a validation request at times when the PDC is busy or unavailable due to a system or network failure. The existence of a BDC is not required, but it should be carefully considered for large, geographically distributed domains.
Trust
In instances when an organization's business rules, administrative structure, or geographic layout doesn't neatly fit the single domain model, multiple domains can be set up and logically connected through trust relationships. Users in a trusted domain are allowed to access resources and participate in group membership in the local domain without having to duplicate SAM directory entries in both domains. This feature provides a means for distributing namespace administration functions in large enterprises. Trust relationships can be broken down into three models, one-way trust, two-way trust, and complete trust. In a one-way trust model, domain A permits access to local resources by domain B, but domain B does not return the favor by permitting access to its resources. In a two-way trust environment, access to resources in domains A and B are permitted in both directions. In the complete-trust model, all domains have access to all resources, no matter where they are located. Complete trust or combinations with the other models are very difficult to manage.
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