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Workstations locate shares by browsing. Basically, browsing is akin to window shopping in a large mall or shopping center. We go from one network computer store to the next, looking to see what resources might be available for use (Figure 3.10). There are two categories of browsers, browser clients and browser servers. Clients query browser servers to locate resources. Grouping resources by domain or workgroup limits browsing scope and simplifies the task of locating the desired resource.
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Figure 3.10: Browsing the network neighborhood
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Each subnet within a domain has a local master browser to localize browsing traffic. Servers within the domain register their shares with the local master. The subnet local master is elected from the candidate computers within a domain, via a dynamic bid process. Each computer bids by announcing its operating system level, revision, and desired browser role as a four-byte string called its election criteria (Table 3.4). The computer with the highest election criteria wins the election and announces its claim to victory. Other contenders are demoted to backup browser status to support redundancy and load sharing. The election process is called when a client believes that the local master has failed or is unavailable. Table 3.4 Browser Election Credentials
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Backup Browser Standby Browser Master Browser Domain Master Browser WINS Client Windows NT Server
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Each domain also has a domain master browser whose responsibility is to synchronize the share datasets between all the local master browsers. The domain master is the collection point for intersubnet browsing. The domain PDC always acts as the domain master browser. In single-subnet domains, the PDC is the domain master browser and local
File Systems
When it comes to file systems, MS Windows is the 24-flavors ice cream shop of operating systems. Popular flavors include FAT, FAT16, FAT32, OS/2 HPFS, NTFS, and DFS. Then there are the UNIX interoperability flavors: NFS and Samba. Windows provides a great deal of functionality in supporting legacy and contemporary file systems. This capability is especially useful in heterogeneous environments, regardless of whether there are multiple versions of Windows or a mixture of Windows and other operating systems.
The file allocation table (FAT) file system represents the basic common denominator for file and directory support across the family of Windows platforms. The FAT architecture is essentially an indexed table that references data containers called clusters within a partition of contiguous space on a disk. A cluster represents the smallest unit of storage on a disk. Cluster size ranges from 512 to 32K bytes depending on disk size and format. Because cluster size represents the smallest container for a file or directory, it may be important to tailor the file system and drive format to meet the file size profile for a particular data set. FAT file systems are defined by four control areas. The first or reserve area contains the boot sector, bootstrap program, and partition table. The next area is the FAT index of clusters, followed by the root directory table, which is a directory of files and top level directories. The fourth area is the file area collection of clusters where data are stored. FAT architecture has evolved over the years in keeping with the availability of larger disks and the demand for larger file sizes. Basically, this has meant an increase in the number of bits in the FAT used to index clusters. More index bits means more clusters can be - 50 -
addressed. Originally the FAT architecture used 12 bits as a cluster index. In DOS 4.0 the index size was increased to 16 bits. In the second release of Windows 95, the FAT index grew once again to 32 bits in FAT32.
Windows NT introduced another player in the suite of Windows file systems, the New Technology File System (NTFS). In keeping with NT's role as a workgroup or domain server, NTFS provides a scalable and recoverable file system environment to better support and secure server data. NTFS again extended the cluster index to 64 bits. This allows NTFS to address large RAID-based data sets that span multiple disk drives. The structural contents and state of NTFS is tracked and maintained in a relational database called the master file table (MFT). MFT information, along with redundant copies of critical file system data and optional file system mirroring, improves NTFS fault tolerance over FAT file systems and enables automated recovery in the event of a system failure. NTFS also provides enhanced data security over FAT. Access controls can be applied at the individual file level. FAT file systems only apply access controls at the directory level.
It is often difficult to locate directory shares in medium to large domains. Microsoft's Distributed File System (DFS) was introduced to simplify locating directory shares and to provide users with a consistent hierarchical view of available resources. Under DFS, shares residing on a number of servers can be organized into a single directory tree called a DFS tree. As client computers traverse the directory tree, they are automatically directed to the server providing the share which makes up that portion of the DFS tree. Alternate directory paths can be defined within DFS to load-balance access to popular shares by replicating the share across multiple servers. When used in conjunction with Windows 2000, LDAP services in Active Directory can be used to identify DFS tree servers for clients. DFS is an add-on service for Windows NT share servers and a client add-on for Windows 9x.
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