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The smbpasswd command is used to set and update the two 32-byte fields in the smbpasswd file. Note that, unlike the UNIX passwd command, smbpasswd should not have setuid root permission for Samba releases as of version 1.9.18p4. This version of smbpasswd acts as a client requesting that the authoritative Samba smbd daemon or NT domain PDC update the password on behalf of the end-user. Like its UNIX counterpart, the smbpasswd command first requests the existing password and then prompts twice for the new password (Example 7.6). Users with root permissions can include the -u <username> option to set the indicated users password. Example 7.6 smbpasswd Command $ smbpasswd <-u username> old password > New SMB password: Repeat New SMB Password: Add Old New New u if root. value if not root. value. value again.
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For sites that started out using clear-text passwords and wish to migrate to encrypted passwords, Samba can automate this process by setting the update encrypted parameter.
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security = user encrypt passwords = no update encrypted = yes At session setup Samba validates the client's plain text password against /etc/passwd using the default UNIX authentication process. Upon successful validation, Samba then encrypts the plain-text password into the LAN Manager and NT hashed formats and stores them in the smbpasswd file. Note that the user must already have an existing entry in the smbpasswd file. Any existing password information in the smbpasswd file will be overwritten by the new password. Once the clear text to encrypted password migration process is complete, turn off the update encrypted parameter and turn on the encrypt passwords parameter: encrypt passwords = yes update encrypted = no
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At this point, you've completed setup of Samba encrypted password support and are now maintaining two separate password files on your server, UNIX's /etc/passwd and Samba's /usr/local/samba/private/smbpasswd. You would probably prefer an automated way to keep the two files synchronized. Updates made to one password file are automatically reflected in the other. Samba can handle one side of the problem for you. By using the unix password sync, passwd program, and passwd chat parameters, smbd will update the UNIX /etc/passwd file whenever it receives an smbpasswd change (Example 7.7). Values for the UNIX passwd command and the password chat text will need to be tailored to your specific UNIX operating system. For UNIX old timers, this is similar to setting up login chat for UUCP connections. You can tailor the chat sequence using the passwd chat debug parameter. Don't leave this option turned on during normal operation as it makes passwords visible in clear text. passwd chat debug = <true, false> You'll need to build something similar if you want to update smbpasswd when the UNIX passwd command is invoked. This can be tricky. You may end up with an update loop between passwd and smbpasswd. If you'd rather pass on this programming exercise, Stephen Langasek has already done some of this work for you with his pam_smbpass module. Samba supports add-on authentication methods through a well-defined API and shared library interface known as a Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM). We'll talk more about PAM's in the section on alternate authentication methods. pam_smbpass allows UNIX users to authenticate against NTLM servers and will update both password files when users change their UNIX passwords. Note that this PAM will only work on the local Samba server, so it can't be used to maintain remote password files in a distributed environment. Stephen's pam_smbpass is available from ftp://ftp.netexpress.net/pub/pam. Example 7.7 Synchronize Samba smbpasswd and UNIX passwd Updates encrypt passwords = yes security = user unix password sync = yes
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passwd program = /usr/bin/passwd %u passwd chat = *password* %n\n *password* %n\n *successful* You might also be interested in periodically synchronizing your NT SAM database with the smbpasswd file. Jeremy Alison of the Samba Team created a tool named pwdump.exe that will export a copy of SAM accounts into a file in smbpasswd format. The program must be run from the Administrator account on NT. The pwdump.exe tool is available from the samba distribution sites. pwdump > smbpasswd
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