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8: Name Service
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Name Service is the glue that logically "binds" a network together (pun intended for UNIX System Administrators). Name Service gives the network a methodology for registering resource names, enforcing uniqueness in the namespace, ensuring timely distribution of namespace updates, and resolving resource addresses from human readable names. Name Service can also be used to reflect the administrative structure of an organization, although this is not a requirement. Basically, Name Service simplifies finding your way around on the wires. In its simplest form, Name Service can be implemented by using a host table; this is a flat ASCII text file that maps resource names and network addresses. References to a resource name are resolved to the associated network address via a simple table lookup. A copy of the host table must be distributed to each machine participating in the
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namespace and maintained as a set. Host tables work well for small collections of networked machines and in situations where you want to enforce a different view of the namespace on particular machines. Larger networks require automated name service mechanisms to guarantee that namespace uniqueness remains consistent over large populations of computers. Automation is also required to ensure that namespace updates can be administered in a distributed manner and that changes are quickly reflected in all participating machines. In the Internet world, automated name service methodology is provided by the Domain Name Service (DNS). Windows supports a similar NetBIOS based name service known as Windows Internet Name Service (WINS). Before diving into the details of Samba Name Service configuration, I want to stress the importance of having a firm understanding of the NetBIOS naming, registration, and query mechanisms. This background will help you better understand how the various smb.conf parameters affect Samba's role as client, server, or proxy agent. The topic of NetBIOS name service was discussed earlier in 3. I would suggest reviewing the pertinent sections of 3 before proceeding with the following sections. We'll also briefly review NetBIOS naming in the following section.
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You may recall that all NetBIOS resources are branded by a 16-byte identifier that represents the resource's unique name or group name (Example 8.1). The first 15 characters represent the alphanumeric name that identifies the resource. The 16th byte is a hexadecimal number that designates the type of resource (Table 8.1). Example 8.1 NetBIOS Name \\<15byte_NetBIOS_name>[00h] Table 8.1 NetBIOS Resource Types
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In the NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NBT) world supported by Samba, NetBIOS names are registered and resolved in one of three ways. The first and simplest method is to use a host table that manually maps NetBIOS names to IP addresses. This table is affectionately known as the LAN Manager Hosts (LMHOSTS) table. Each line in the LMHOSTS table matches a NetBIOS resource name to its home IP address (Example 8.2). Example 8.2 Sample Windows LMHOSTS Table 149.110.5.12 149.110.5.11 149.110.5.2 149.110.5.1 149.110.5.5 Wizard Dragon Dhyana Tao Rose #PRE #DOM:EYRIE
The second method registers and resolves NetBIOS names using network broadcasts (Figure 8.1). To make its presence known, a machine broadcasts its name over the network on UDP port 137. This usually occurs at system boot time when network services are starting. The machine then awaits a response indicating whether its chosen name is accepted or rejected as being already in use by another machine (Figure 8.2). The process may be repeated a number of times, because broadcast delivery is not guaranteed. Upon successful registration, the NetBIOS name and address are cached in a collaborative manner by the workgroup of machines. NetBIOS name resolution queries are handled in a similar fashion. This method can break down quickly on large, complex networks due to routing problems and/or heavy broadcast traffic.
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