s in the ABAP Dictionary in Software

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Tables in the ABAP Dictionary
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Tables are the basic management objects in the underlying logic of the R/3 business applications. The number of tables of a new and standard R/3 installation exceeds 10,000 in the ABAP dictionary. This fact does not mean you have to deal with all of them. The system manages them in a transparent way for users. The following three types of tables are available: Transparent tables Pool tables Cluster tables From an application user point of view, all tables behave and are used for the same purpose. There are no differences either in the properties or in the operation: all of them are relational tables, with their own sets of allowed operations, relations, and so forth; all of them can be managed with standard SQL calls; and all of them can be used for making queries, updates, deletes, inserts, and more. However, from an administrator point of view, things are slightly different. The ABAP dictionary is a layered software which isolates end users and even developers from the underlying database management system. In other words, the inherent openness of the R/3 architecture makes the use of the dictionary completely transparent, regardless of whether the underlying DBMS is Oracle, Informix, SQL Server, Adabas, or DB2. SAP uses these procedures to create more complex data structures than the standard structures provided within the database system. This is done both for performance and for grouping logically related tables. That's why, besides normal transparent tables, the R/3 system also includes tables of type pool and cluster. Transparent tables do exist with the same structure both in the dictionary as well as in the underlying database system, exactly with the same records and field descriptions. However, the other two types cannot be directly queried in the underlying database, since those structures are only logically known at the SAP level. These structures can be found in the database but not in a directly readable form.
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Pooled Tables, Table Pools, Cluster Tables, and Table Clusters
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These types of tables are not transparent in the sense that they are not legible or manageable directly using the underlying database system tools. They are managed from within the R/3 environment from the ABAP dictionary and also at runtime when they are loaded into application memory. Pool and cluster tables are logical tables. Physically, these logical tables are arranged as records of transparent tables. The pool and cluster tables are grouped together in other tables, which are of the transparent type. The tables that group together pool tables are known as table pools, or just pools; similarly, table clusters, or just clusters, are the tables which group cluster tables. Not all operations that can be performed over transparent tables can be executed over pool or cluster tables. For instance, you can manage these tables using Open SQL calls from ABAP, but not Native SQL.
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Pooled Tables, Table Pools, Cluster Tables, and Table Clusters These tables are meant to be buffered and loaded in memory, because they are commonly used for storing internal control information and other types of data with no external (business) relevance. SAP recommends that tables of pool or cluster type be used exclusively for control information such as program parameters, documentation, and so on. Transaction and application data should be stored in transparent tables. Table Pools From the point of view of the underlying DBMS as from the point of view of the ABAP dictionary, a table pool is a transparent table containing a group of pooled tables which, when created, were assigned to this table pool. Defining a table pool requires two key fields, a fixed length field and a variable length field. Table 8 1 shows the structure of a table pool definition.
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Table 8 1: Table Pool Definition Field Type Description TABNAME CHAR(10) Table name VARKEY CHAR(n) Maximum key length n =< 110 DATALN INT2(5) Length of the VARDATA record returned VARDATA RAW(m) Maximum length of the data varies according to DBMS Fields TABNAME and VARKEY are the primary keys in a table pool. TABNAME contains the name of the pooled table, whereas VARKEY contains the primary key for that pooled table. Notice that VARKEY only admits character data types, which implies that only character data types are allowed as primary keys for pooled tables. DATALN is a field which contains the actual length of the record which is written in the next field, VARDATA. This field, VARDATA, might be a long field, since it contains the other data of the record which do not belong to the primary key. An example of a table pool is ATAB. Another typical example of pools and pooled tables are the matchcodes: while the matchcode data for every matchcode ID can be stored in pooled tables, a table pool is created for every matchcode object, which contains the group of pooled tables belonging to every matchcode ID. More information on matchcodes can be found in the following sections. Table Clusters Similarly to pooled tables, cluster tables are logical tables which, when created, are assigned to a table cluster. Therefore, a table cluster, or just cluster, groups together several tables of type clusters. Several logical rows from different cluster tables are brought together in a single physical record. The records from the cluster tables assigned to a cluster are thus stored in a single common table in the database.
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Working with Tables A cluster contains a transparent cluster key which must be located at the start of the key of all logical cluster tables to be included in the cluster. As well, a cluster contains a long field (VARDATA), which contains the data of the cluster tables for this key. If the data does not fit into a field, continuation records are created. The structure of a table cluster is shown in Table 8 2.
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Table 8 2: Table Cluster Definition Field Type Description CLKEY1 CHAR(*) First key fields CLKEY2 CHAR(*) Second key field . CLKEYN CHAR(*) nth key field PAGENO INT2(5) Number of the next page TIMESTMP CHAR(14) Time stamp PAGELG INT2(5) Length of the VARDATA record returned VARDATA RAW(*) Maximum length of the data section; varies according to database system Please refer to the SAP online documentation for instructions on how to create, delete, and maintain these types of tables.
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