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Performing Reorganizations Using the sapdba Reorganization Menu
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Figure 15 24: Example of reorganization menu tablespace. There are, however, common options for all reorganization types that are introduced in the following sections. Those other options that are type specific will be explained in the corresponding section. All the following options can be changed interactively before starting the reorganization. Working Directory It's the directory in which the reorganization scripts and the log files are created. The default directory is /oracle/<SID>/sapreorg. You can change this directory when necessary. Dump Destination It's the directory or directories that will hold the export dump files generated during a reorganization. In some options, such as reorganization of tablespaces with data files, you can enter several directories. The default value is normally /oracle/<SID>/sapreorg, but you can also modify this default by setting a different directory value in the parameter exireo_dumpdir within the init<SID>.dba. Although, normally, export dumps are written to disks (which is faster), you can also specify one or more tape devices as dump destinations. As you can see in Fig. 15 24, the tool automatically shows the available space in the specified destination. Make sure there is sufficient space to hold the exports for the objects to be reorganized, although sapdba will report a warning message in this case. The storage needed might be reduced by selecting compression within the data transfer method for tables (within option ORACLE exp/imp), although the system checks will not take compression into consideration when calculating space needed for reorganization. If you are using tape drives instead of disks, please check the SAPnet notes and read carefully the SAP instructions in the online documentation. Transfer Method for Table Data (ORACLE exp/imp) The transfer or dump method specifies which tool will be used for performing the data export and import. By default, sapdba uses the Oracle export and import tools (exp and imp). There are two other available tools, SAP unload/SAP load and SAP unload/ORACLE SQL*Loader. Some of these tools are supposed to be faster; however, they are used less than the usual exp/imp method. In this edition, only the Oracle export/import tool is explained. For information on and release availability of the other tools, please refer to the SAP online documentation. Selecting the option f ORACLE exp/imp will display an additional menu like the one shown in Fig. 15 25. In this new menu you can select the transfer method and other options, such as: 552
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Performing Reorganizations Using the sapdba Reorganization Menu Create table as select. This is an additional and complementary method for data transfer in reorganizations that basically consists of creating auxiliary new tables before reorganizing the actual table. This method presents two advantages: it saves time and it is useful for table stripping (moving tables to other tablespaces). However, this method cannot be used for reorganization of tablespaces with data files or with tables containing LONG columns. Compress dump file(s). Select this option if you want to compress the export dump files to save space in the dump directory, or select the default value no. When selecting yes, the output of the export file is sent to the compress UNIX command before the file is actually written. Compression is not available for exporting to tapes. Check dump file. This option is mainly used when exporting dump files to tape. It performs a read check of the dump file. Commit during import. When using the default value yes, an Oracle COMMIT statement is sent to the database after importing the data in the buffer. For tables with long records, setting this value to no can improve performance. Buffer size. Default value of 3,000,000 will provide approximately 3 MB of buffer space for performing exports and imports. Parallel export and import. This option can only be set in certain situations. It instructs the system to perform the export/import procedure in parallel.
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Figure 15 25: Menu for selecting the export/import method of a reorganization. The next sapdba reorganization option corresponds to the group of parameters that have direct influence on the object storage options. Compress Extents The default value is yes, which means that the reorganization will compress all the object's extents into one larger INITIAL extent. Refer to the previous topic on storage parameters. In cases where the INITIAL extent would be bigger than the biggest available datafile in the tablespace, sapdba will divide it into several parts. Use ABAP Dictionary for NEXT Default value is yes which means that the system will calculate the value for the objects NEXT storage parameter for the SAP tables DD09L and IGORA/TGORA.
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Performing Reorganizations Using the sapdba Reorganization Menu Check Space (CheckExt) This option is set to ALL, indicating that all the extents should be checked. If a value of NO is entered, the objects will be restored without any change. Reduce Object Size Setting this option to "yes" will affect how the tool will calculate new storage parameters for the objects being reorganized. It will try to reduce the allocated storage space for the objects using the Oracle functions ANALYZE TABLE<table name> ESTIMATE STATISTICS or ANALYZE INDEX <index name> VALIDATE STRUCTURE (for indexes). For example, this option can calculate and reduce an object's INITIAL extent, which has a lot of free space. The default option is no. Change Storage Manually If you wish, you can manually change the storage parameters for the database objects (indexes, tables, tablespaces), which are being reorganized. The default value is no, which means that the storage parameters are set automatically by the tool. Please refer to the previous topic on storage parameters. Manually changing storage parameters must be done in coordination with the values chosen for other previous options such as Use ABAP Dict. for NEXT, Compress extents, and Reduce object size following certain criteria. For example, you can manually change the value for the INITIAL extent to make it larger when you expect a table or index to grow very quickly, and you would like to have enough room to hold the data without the need to create new extents. On the other hand, you could make it smaller when data in the object has been deleted, and you don't expect new data for it. Similarly, you can manually change the size for the NEXT parameter when you expect fast growing tables or indexes and want to avoid a rapidly increasing number of extents, or if you want to plan a stable "extent situation" for a longer term. The next group of options are grouped under Object handling, which includes several utilities that can be used in some of the reorganization types. These will be shown on the menu when available. Options are: Hide tables during reorganization (HideTab). If this option is set to yes, the system will temporarily rename the table or tables being reorganized. Use ABAP Dict. for tablespace (SAP Tsp). This option can be used in some types of reorganizations when deciding to move tables to the tablespaces defined in the ABAP Dictionary. Rebuild Index (RebuildI). When this option is set, sapdba issues the Oracle statement ALTER INDEX REBUILD. This is useful both when reorganizing indexes without tables and when reorganizing tablespaces and data files without using the index tablespaces. Reduce data file size (ReduceFi). This option can be used when it is necessary to reduce the size of the data files. The system will make the calculations and will add a 10 percent security margin. Parallel Index Creation (ParIndex) You can enter here when you want to run more than one process in parallel for the creation of indexes. This option is useful when the database servers have more than one CPU. The default value is degree 1 (no parallel processes).
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Performing Reorganizations Using the sapdba Reorganization Menu For all types of reorganizations and associated sapdba menus, you have to specify the objects to reorganize. Normally, you do this with option b (in the case of single table or index) or a (for other reorganization types). When specifying object names, you generate a list of objects using the Oracle wildcard character (%), which acts as the LIKE function. For example, to generate a list of tables starting with TBT you could enter TBT%. The sapdba program will present the list where you can choose the table to be reorganized. The next sections explain how the specific reorganization types are carried out as well as the specific menu options for each of them, while Table 15 2 displays a summary of the main scripts and log files with the naming conventions used in different reorganization types.
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Table 15 2: Script and Log Files in Reorganizations Log/script reorg<SID>.log <timestamp>.rli <timestamp>.rtc <timestamp>.rtd <timestamp>.rmv restart.rsi restart.rli restart.rtc restart.rtd restart.rmv exp<TSP>.sh dro<TSP>.sh tab<TSP>.sql imp<TSP>.sh ind<TSP>.sql con<TSP>.sql imc<TSP>.sh alt<TSP>.sql drc<TSP>.sql exc<TSP>.sh swi<TSP>.sql dro<TSP>.sql del<TSP>.sh ren<TSP>.sql tsp<TSP>.sql grants.sql Description Main log for reorganization Log for list of objects reorganization Log for tablespace reorganization Log for tablespace with data files reorganization Log for move or rename data files of a tablespace Restart file for reorganizing single object Restart file for reorganizing list of objects Restart file for reorganizing tablespace Restart file for reorganizing tablespace with data files Restart file when changing table file allocation Export script SQL script for deleting objects SQL script for creating table definitions Import script SQL script for index creation SQL script for constraints creation Import script for constraints SQL script for deleting of index statistics SQL script for deleting constraints Script for generating several export files SQL scripts for launching security mechanisms in reorganizations SQL scripts for deleting (dropping) objects Scripts for deleting files and directories SQL scripts for renaming data files SQL scripts for creating tablespaces SQL script for defining grants
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Performing Reorganizations Using the sapdba Reorganization Menu Reorganizing Single Objects: Tables or Indexes To reorganize an index or a table, from the initial reorganization menu, select option c Reorganize single table or index. Figure 15 26 shows this menu.
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Figure 15 26: Menu for reorganizing single database objects. As a security measure, following the SAP backup concepts recommendations, you could export the table (with the R/3 system stopped) before starting the reorganization. Select option b to enter the name for the table or index. Choose any other option at your convenience according to the concepts described in previous sections. During the reorganization of a table or index, you might decide to move this database object to a different tablespace (a way of performing table stripping). To do that, select option h Object handling, then select the SAP Tsp option and enter the name for the target tablespace. SYSTEM, PSAPROLL, PSAPTEMP, and any other tablespaces that do not conform to SAP standard naming conventions are not allowed. When you move a table from its original tablespace to a different one, the system will automatically move the index to the associated index tablespace. Then, select s for starting the reorganization process. In the preparation phase, the sapdba utility will check for space problems (import check) and ensure that reorganization is possible. An example of such a check is shown in Fig. 15 23 on a previous section. It generates the shell scripts and SQL scripts for performing the reorganization in the main phase and also creates the restart file. The restart file is a very interesting file, since it shows exactly what is the execution order for the generated scripts. This is discussed in a following section. Refer to Table 15 2 for the list and naming convention of the scripts. Next, the system requests you to select whether you want to perform the actual reorganization (main phase) either immediately (1), start the scripts in batch (2), or end (3). Choose the most appropriate considering that, for starting reorganizations in batch, the at UNIX command must be configured to allow the ora<sid> or <sid>adm user for scheduling background jobs. Sometimes it's useful to choose option 3 End (later restart is possible) when you want to look at the scripts before they are actually executed or manually modify any of the scripts or even the restart file. Any manual 556
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Performing Reorganizations Using the sapdba Reorganization Menu change should be handled with care. Only experienced administrators or Oracle experts should modify them. When executing the scripts, the system will: Export the data to a dump file Delete the object Create (define) the table with new calculated or manually entered storage parameters Import again the table contents and/or recreate the index Reorganizing a List of Tables and Indexes You can reorganize a list of database objects selecting option d Reorganize list of tables and indexes from the sapdba reorganization menu. But before you choose this option, you first have to create the list file including the objects to reorganize. This list file is a simple ASCII file containing a line for each object to reorganize. The format for the object name is owner.object; for example, SAPR3.T082T, where SAPR3 is the owner and T082T, the table. Since SAPR3 is the default owner for most objects, you can omit it and just enter an object name (table or index) per line. The option SAP Tsp within the object handling utilities is usually set to NO, indicating that the system should place the objects to be reorganized in the standard tablespaces as defined in the SAP data dictionary using tables TGORA (for tables) and IGORA (for indexes). After entering your needed selections in the menu, enter option s for starting the reorganization. In the preparation phase, the actions that take place to reorganize a list of objects are the same as those to reorganize single objects. If the list includes just one object per tablespace, it will do an import check for the single object, while if there is more than one object per tablespace, the system will perform an import check for the tablespace. The only other differences will be in the log and script files generated. In object list reorganizations, the logs carry the rli extension. Refer to Table 15 2 for the list and naming convention for the scripts generated during different reorganizations. The system will present the same options for starting the reorganization: immediate (1), batch (2), or later with restart (3). Reorganization of Tablespaces Without Datafiles As it was introduced and shown in Figs. 15 19 and 15 20 previously, you can reorganize tablespaces with or without data files. Reorganizing with data files is useful when you wish to reduce the total number of database files or when a tablespace has been extended too often using small data files instead of larger ones. Otherwise, the reorganization of tablespaces without data files is most often used. For both types of tablespace reorganization (with or without data files), it is particularly important to perform a previous full backup. After a reorganization is successfully finished, you should also perform another backup of at least the reorganized tablespaces. To reorganize a tablespace without data files, select option e Reorganize tablespace from the reorganization menu. Figure 15 24 shows this menu. 557
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Performing Reorganizations Using the sapdba Reorganization Menu Select option a to enter the tablespace name. If you want to change any of the storage parameters, reorganization directories, or wish to perform the index creation in parallel, select the corresponding menu option as introduced in the previous section. Then select s for starting the reorganization process. In the preparation phase, sapdba will generate the SQL and shell script files as well as the restart file. For this type of reorganization, the log files have the extension rtc. Refer to Table 15 2 for the list and naming convention of log files. The system will also perform a tablespace import check: it will calculate whether the object extents belonging to the tablespace can be stored in the data files. After a successful check, the system presents again the three options for running the scripts (the main phase): immediately (1), in batch (2), or later with the restart script (3). Make your selection. When the scripts are run, they will perform the following tasks: If the HideTab option is set, the script will temporarily rename the tables to be reorganized. Then, all the index statistics and the constraints are deleted. Then, all the tables and indexes of the tablespace will be exported to one or more export dump files. Next all the tables and indexes will be deleted. Using specific Oracle functions, all the free space fragments on the tablespace data files are merged. The table definitions are then created, and the table contents are imported. For index tablespaces, the indexes are recreated. If necessary, any additional tablespace related objects such as grants and constraints are imported. Reorganization of a Tablespace with Data Files For reorganizing a tablespace with data files, select option f from the initial reorganization menu. Figure 15 27 shows the resulting menu.
Figure 15 27: Menu for reorganizing a tablespace with data files. This menu presents the same options as reorganizing a tablespace without data files with the small difference that within the Object handling option you have the opportunity to select the ReduceFi (Reduce data file) 558
Performing Reorganizations Using the sapdba Reorganization Menu option if you want to reduce the size of the new data file (or data files). Notice that, in most operating systems, you will not be able to reduce all data files to a single one; namely, if the total size is bigger than 2 GB. So, if you expect bigger sizes, the system will normally try to distribute the available storage into files of the same size. Enter the name of the tablespace using option a Tablespace and make any other changes to the sapdba proposed values as you need. Then start the process by selecting option s. Logs for this reorganization type carry the rtd extension. Refer to Table 15 2 for the list and naming conventions of all reorganization scripts. In the preparation phase, sapdba will calculate the number, the directories, and the sizes for the new data files of the tablespace. If the new tablespace data does not fit into a single data file, it will suggest several files. It checks that there is sufficient storage space in the file system to hold the new data files. As usual, it generates the SQL, shell scripts, and the restart file. If the checks are successful, the system presents the three options for running the scripts (the main phase): immediately (1), in batch (2), or later with the restart script (3). Make your selection. When the scripts are run, they will perform the following tasks: Delete the index statistics and constraints Export the table contents, indexes, and, if needed, other related tablespace objects Perform some safety mechanisms Delete the tablespace and all the data files; when the directories contain a single file and do not contain any other file not related with the tablespace, the directories are also deleted Create the new directories and datafiles following SAP standard naming conventions Using specific Oracle functions, it will merge all the free space fragments on the entire database Create (define) the new tablespace and import the tables and indexes, and, if needed, other related objects such as grants and constraints Moving or Renaming a Tablespace Data File This is an additional option within the reorganization menu which, although it does not really perform a reorganization in the database sense, changes the database structure. This is option g Move / rename data files of a tablespace, which can be used to change the location of data files in the file system. This is a very useful function when you need to perform changes in the physical or logical layout of the disk volumes, such as when adding additional disks, changing disk types, and so on. Figure 15 28 shows this new menu.
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