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how to create barcode in ssrs report Downlink rainfade margin in Software
12.9.2 Downlink rainfade margin QR Code Reader In None Using Barcode Control SDK for Software Control to generate, create, read, scan barcode image in Software applications. Create QR Code JIS X 0510 In None Using Barcode generation for Software Control to generate, create QRCode image in Software applications. The results given by Eqs. (12.53) and (12.54) are for clearsky conditions. Rainfall introduces attenuation by absorption and scattering of signal energy, and the absorptive attenuation introduces noise as discussed in Sec. 12.5.5. Let [A] dB represent the rain attenuation caused by absorption. The corresponding power loss ratio is A 10[A]/10, and substituting this for L in Eq. (12.29) gives the effective noise temperature of the rain as Train Ta a1 1 b A (12.58) QRCode Reader In None Using Barcode scanner for Software Control to read, scan read, scan image in Software applications. Draw Quick Response Code In Visual C#.NET Using Barcode generation for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create QRCode image in .NET framework applications. Twelve
Making QR Code In VS .NET Using Barcode generation for ASP.NET Control to generate, create Quick Response Code image in ASP.NET applications. Quick Response Code Encoder In VS .NET Using Barcode printer for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create Denso QR Bar Code image in .NET applications. Here, Ta, which takes the place of Tx in Eq. (12.29), is known as the apparent absorber temperature. It is a measured parameter which is a function of many factors including the physical temperature of the rain and the scattering effect of the rain cell on the thermal noise incident upon it (Hogg and Chu, 1975). The value of the apparent absorber temperature lies between 270 and 290 K, with measured values for North America lying close to or just below freezing (273 K). For example, the measured value given by Webber et al. (1986) is 272 K. The total skynoise temperature is the clearsky temperature TCS plus the rain temperature: Tsky TCS Train (12.59) Create Denso QR Bar Code In Visual Basic .NET Using Barcode generator for VS .NET Control to generate, create Quick Response Code image in Visual Studio .NET applications. Creating Universal Product Code Version A In None Using Barcode maker for Software Control to generate, create UPC Code image in Software applications. Rainfall therefore degrades the received [C/N0] in two ways: by attenuating the carrier wave and by increasing the skynoise temperature. GS1 128 Generation In None Using Barcode maker for Software Control to generate, create GS1 128 image in Software applications. Bar Code Creator In None Using Barcode printer for Software Control to generate, create barcode image in Software applications. Example 12.16
Data Matrix 2d Barcode Creation In None Using Barcode encoder for Software Control to generate, create DataMatrix image in Software applications. EAN13 Generator In None Using Barcode creation for Software Control to generate, create EAN13 image in Software applications. Under clearsky conditions, the downlink [C/N] is 20 dB, the effective noise temperature of the receiving system being 400 K. If rain attenuation exceeds 1.9 dB for 0.1 percent of the time, calculate the value below which [C/N] falls for 0.1 percent of the time. Assume Ta 280 K. Encode 2 Of 5 Standard In None Using Barcode encoder for Software Control to generate, create 2 of 5 Industrial image in Software applications. 2D Barcode Generator In Visual Basic .NET Using Barcode creator for .NET framework Control to generate, create 2D Barcode image in VS .NET applications. Solution
Recognizing USS Code 39 In VB.NET Using Barcode reader for VS .NET Control to read, scan read, scan image in .NET framework applications. European Article Number 13 Creation In VS .NET Using Barcode printer for ASP.NET Control to generate, create EAN13 image in ASP.NET applications. 1.9 dB attenuation is equivalent to a 1.55:1 power loss. The equivalent noise temperature of the rain is therefore Train 280 (1 1/1.55) 99.2 K Create EAN / UCC  13 In None Using Barcode creation for Online Control to generate, create EAN / UCC  14 image in Online applications. Make Code 128 Code Set B In VS .NET Using Barcode generation for Reporting Service Control to generate, create Code 128C image in Reporting Service applications. The new system noise temperature is 400 99.2 499.2 K. The decibel increase in noise power is therefore [499.2] [400] 0.96 dB. At the same time, the carrier is reduced by 1.9 dB, and therefore, the [C/N] with 1.9dB rain attenuation drops to 20 1.9 0.96 17.14 dB. This is the value below which [C/N] drops for 0.1 percent of the time. Printing Code 128 Code Set C In None Using Barcode encoder for Microsoft Excel Control to generate, create Code 128B image in Microsoft Excel applications. UPCA Supplement 2 Printer In Visual Basic .NET Using Barcode generation for .NET framework Control to generate, create UPCA Supplement 5 image in .NET framework applications. It is left as an exercise for the student to show that where the rain power attenuation A (not dB) is entirely absorptive, the downlink C/N power ratios (not dBs) are related to the clearsky value by a N b C rain a N b aA C CS (A 1) Ta TS,CS b (12.60) where the subscript CS is used to indicate clearsky conditions and TS,CS is the system noise temperature under clearsky conditions. Note that noisetocarrier ratios, rather than carriertonoise ratios are required by Eq. (12.60). For low frequencies (6/4 GHz) and low rainfall rates (below about 1 mm/h), the rain attenuation is almost entirely absorptive. At higher rainfall rates, scattering becomes significant, especially at the higher frequencies. When scattering and absorption are both significant, the total attenuation must be used to calculate the reduction in carrier power and the absorptive attenuation to calculate the increase in noise temperature. The Space Link
As discussed in Chap. 9, a minimum value of [C/N] is required for satisfactory reception. In the case of frequency modulation, the minimum value is set by the threshold level of the FM detector, and a threshold margin is normally allowed, as shown in Fig. 9.12. Sufficient margin must be allowed so that raininduced fades do not take the [C/N] below threshold more than a specified percentage of the time, as shown in Example 12.17. Example 12.17 In an FM satellite system, the clearsky downlink [C/N] ratio is 17.4 dB and the FM detector threshold is 10 dB, as shown in Fig. 9.12. (a) Calculate the threshold margin at the FM detector, assuming the threshold [C/N] is determined solely by the downlink value. (b) Given that Ta 272 K and that TS,CS 544 K, calculate the percentage of time the system stays above threshold. The curve of Fig. 12.8 may be used for the downlink, and it may be assumed that the rain attenuation is entirely absorptive. Solution (a) Since it is assumed that the overall [C/N] ratio is equal to the downlink value, the clearsky input [C/N] to the FM detector is 17.4 dB. The threshold level for the detector is 10 dB, and therefore, the rainfade margin is 17.4 10 7.4 dB. (b) The rain attenuation can reduce the [C/N] to the threshold level of 10 dB (i.e., it reduces the margin to zero), which is a (C/N) power ratio of 10:1 or a downlink N/C power ratio of 1/10.

