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13.2.8 Protection ratio
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In CCIR Report 634 2 (1982), the International Radio Consultative Committee (CCIR) specifies the permissible interference level for TV carriers in terms of a parameter known as the protection ratio. The protection ratio is defined as the minimum carrier-to-interference ratio at the input to the receiver which results in just perceptible degradation of picture quality. The protection ratio applies only for wanted and interfering TV carriers at the same frequency, and it is equivalent to [C/I ]pb evaluated for this situation. Denoting the quality impairment factor by QIF and the protection ratio in decibels by [PR0], the equation given in CCIR Report 634 2 (1982) is [PR0] 12.5 20 loga Dv b 12 QIF 1.1Q2 IF (13.9)
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Here Dv is the peak-to-peak deviation in megahertz.
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Example 13.5 An FM/TV carrier is specified as having a modulation index of 2.571 and a top modulating frequency of 4.2 MHz. Calculate the protection ratio required to give a quality impairment factor of (a) 4.2 and (b) 4.5.
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Solution The peak-to-peak deviation is 2 (13.9) gives the following results:
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2.571 b
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21.6 MHz. Applying Eq.
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[PR0]
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20 loga
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21.6 12
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22.6 dB 21.6 12 25.2 dB b
[PR0]
20 loga
Interference
It should be noted that the receiver transfer characteristic discussed in Sec. 13.2.6 was developed from the CCIR protection ratio concept (see Jeruchim and Kane, 1970). 13.3 Energy Dispersal The power in a frequency-modulated signal remains constant, independent of the modulation index. When unmodulated, all the power is at the carrier frequency, and when modulated, the same total power is distributed among the carrier and the sidebands. At low modulation indices the sidebands are grouped close to the carrier, and the power spectral density, or wattage per unit bandwidth, is relatively high in that spectral region. At high modulation indices, the spectrum becomes widely spread, and the power spectral density relatively low. Use is made of this property in certain situations to keep radiation within CCIR recommended limits. For example, to limit the A2 mode of interference in the 1- to 15-GHz range for the fixed satellite service, CCIR Radio Regulations state, in part, that the earth station EIRP should not exceed 40 dBW in any 4-kHz band for 0 and should not exceed 40 3 dBW in any 4-kHz band for 0 5 . The angle is the angle of elevation of the horizon viewed from the center of radiation of the earth station antenna. It is positive for angles above the horizontal plane, as illustrated in Fig. 13.7a, and negative for angles below the horizontal plane, as illustrated in Fig. 13.7b.
Figure 13.7 Angles and as defined in Sec. 13.3.
Thirteen
For space stations transmitting in the frequency range 3400 to 7750 MHz, the limits are specified in terms of power flux density for any 4- kHz bandwidth. Denoting the angle of arrival as degrees, measured above the horizontal plane as shown in Fig. 13.7c, these limits are
152 dB(W/m2) in any 4-kHz band for 0 152 0.5 (
5 25 90
5) dB(W/m ) in any 4-kHz band for 5
142 dB(W/m ) in any 4-kHz band for 25
Because the specification is in terms of power or flux density in any 4-kHz band, not the total power or the total flux density, a carrier may be within the limits when heavily frequency-modulated, but the same carrier with light frequency modulation may exceed the limits. An energy-dispersal waveform is a low-frequency modulating wave which is inserted below the lowest baseband frequency for the purpose of dispersing the spectral energy when the current value of the modulating index is low. In the INTELSAT system for FDM carriers, a symmetrical triangular wave is used, a different fundamental frequency for this triangular wave in the range 20 to 150 Hz being assigned to each FDM carrier. The rms level of the baseband is monitored, and the amplitude of the dispersal waveform is automatically adjusted to keep the overall frequency deviation within defined limits. At the receive end, the dispersal waveform is removed from the demodulated signal by lowpass filtering. With television signals the situation is more complicated. The dispersal waveform, usually a sawtooth waveform, must be synchronized with the field frequency of the video signal to prevent video interference, so for the 525/60 standard, a 30-Hz wave is used, and for the 625/50 standard, a 25-Hz wave is used. If the TV signal occupies the full bandwidth of the transponder, known as full-transponder television, the dispersal level is kept constant at a peak-to-peak deviation of 1 MHz irrespective of the video level. In what is termed half-transponder television, where the TV carrier occupies only one-half of the available transponder bandwidth, the dispersal deviation is maintained at 1-MHz peak to peak when video modulation is present and is automatically increased to 2 MHz when video modulation is absent. At the receiver, video clamping is the most commonly used method of removing the dispersal waveform. Energy dispersal is effective in reducing all modes of interference but particularly that occurring between earth and terrestrial stations (A2 mode) and between space and terrestrial stations (C1). It is also effective in reducing intermodulation noise.
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