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This is the simplest method of transmit timing. A station transmits at a fixed interval following reception of the timing markers, according to the burst time plan, and sufficient guard time is allowed to absorb the variations in propagation delay. The burst position error can be large with this method, and longer guard times are necessary, which reduces frame efficiency (see Sec. 14.7.7). However, for frame times longer than about 45 ms, the loss of efficiency is less than 10 percent. In a modified version of the open-loop method known as adaptive open-loop timing, the range is computed at the traffic station from orbital data or from measurements, and the traffic earth station makes its own corrections in timing to allow for the variations in the range. It should be noted that with open-loop timing, no special acquisition procedure is required.
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Loopback refers to the fact that an earth station receives its own transmission, from which it can determine range. It follows that the loopback method can only be used where the satellite transmits a global or regional beam encompassing all the earth stations in the network. A number of methods are available for the acquisition process (see, for example, Gagliardi, 1991), but basically, these all require some form of ranging to be carried out so that a close estimate of the slot position can be acquired. In one method, the traffic
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station transmits a low-level burst consisting of the preamble only. The power level is 20 to 25 dB below the normal operating level (Ha, 1990) to prevent interference with other bursts, and the short burst is swept through the frame until it is observed to fall within the assigned time slot for the station. The short burst is then increased to full power, and fine adjustments in timing are made to bring it to the beginning of the time slot. Acquisition can take up to about 3 s in some cases. Following acquisition, the traffic data can be added, and synchronization can be maintained by continuously monitoring the position of the loopback transmission with reference to the SORF marker. The timing positions are reckoned from the last bit of the unique word in the preamble (as is also the case for the reference burst). The loopback method is also known as direct closed-loop feedback.
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Where a traffic station lies outside the satellite beam containing its own transmission, loopback of the transmission does not of course occur, and some other method must be used for the station to receive ranging information. Where the synchronization information is transmitted back to an earth station from a distant station, this is termed feedback closed-loop control. The distant station may be a reference station, as in the INTELSAT network, or it may be another traffic station which is a designated partner. During the acquisition stage, the distant station can feed back information to guide the positioning of the short burst, and once the correct time slot is acquired, the necessary synchronizing information can be fed back on a continuous basis. Figure 14.17 illustrates the feedback closed-loop control method for two earth stations A and B. The SORF marker is used as a reference point for the burst transmissions. However, the reference point which denotes the start of transmit frame (SOTF) has to be delayed by a certain amount, shown as DA for earth station A and DB for earth-station B. This is necessary so that the SOTF reference points for each earth station coincide at the satellite transponder, and the traffic bursts, which are transmitted at their designated times after the SOTF, arrive in their correct relative positions at the transponder, as shown in Fig. 14.17. The total time delay between any given satellite clock pulse and the corresponding SOTF is a constant, shown as C in Fig. 14.17. C is equal to 2tA DA for station A and 2tB DB for station B. In general, for earth station i, the delay Di is determined by 2ti In the INTELSAT network, C Di C (14.17)
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