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(14.28)
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Example 14.5 Calculate the voice-channel capacity for the INTELSAT frame in
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Example 14.2, given that the voice-channel bit rate is 64 kb/s and that QPSK modulation is used. The frame period is 2 ms.
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The number of symbols per frame is 120,832, and the frame period is 2 ms. Therefore, the symbol rate is 120,832/2 ms 60.416 megasymbols/s. QPSK modulation utilizes 2 bits per symbol, and therefore, the transmission rate is RTDMA 60.416 2 120.832 Mb/s. Using Eq. (14.28) and the efficiency as calculated in Example 14.4, n 0.949 120.832 103 64 1792
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14.7.8 Preassigned TDMA
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An example of a preassigned TDMA network is the CSC for the Spade network described in Sec. 14.5. The frame and burst formats are shown in Fig. 14.19. The CSC can accommodate up to 49 earth stations in the network plus one reference station, making a maximum of 50 bursts in a frame.
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Frame and bit formats for the common signaling channel (CSC) used with the Spade system. (Data from Miya, 1981.)
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All the bursts are of equal length. Each burst contains 128 bits and occupies a 1-ms time slot. Thus the bit rate is 128 kb/s. As discussed in Sec. 14.5, the frequency bandwidth required for the CSC is 160 kHz. The signaling unit (SU) shown in Fig. 14.19 is that section of the data burst which is used to update the other stations on the status of the frequencies available for the SCPC calls. It also carries the signaling information, as described in Sec. 14.5. Another example of a preassigned TDMA frame format is the INTELSAT frame shown in simplified form in Fig. 14.20. In the INTELSAT system, preassigned and demand-assigned voice channels are carried together, but for clarity, only a preassigned traffic burst is shown. The traffic burst is subdivided into time slots, termed satellite channels in the INTELSAT terminology, and there can be up to 128 of these in a traffic burst. Each satellite channel is further subdivided into 16 time slots termed terrestrial channels, each terrestrial channel carrying one PCM sample of an analog telephone signal. QPSK modulation is used, and therefore, there are 2 bits per symbol as shown. Thus each terrestrial channel carries 4 symbols (or 8 bits). Each satellite channel carries 4 16 64 symbols, and at its maximum of 128 satellite channels, the traffic burst carries 8192 symbols.
Fourteen
Preassigned TDMA frame in the Intelsat system.
As discussed in Sec. 10.3, the PCM sampling rate is 8 kHz, and with 8 bits per sample, the PCM bit rate is 64 kb/s. Each satellite channel can accommodate this bit rate. Where input data at a higher rate must be transmitted, multiple satellite channels are used. The maximum input data rate which can be handled is 128(SC) 64 kb/s 8.192 Mb/s. The INTELSAT frame is 120,832 symbols or 241,664 bits long. The frame period is 2 ms, and therefore, the burst bit rate is 120.832 Mb/s. As mentioned previously, preassigned and demand-assigned voice channels can be accommodated together in the INTELSAT frame format. The demand-assigned channels utilize a technique known as digital speech interpolation (DSI), which is described in the following section. The preassigned channels are referred to as digital noninterpolated (DNI) channels.
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14.7.9 Demand-assigned TDMA
With TDMA, the burst and subburst assignments are under software control, compared with hardware control of the carrier frequency assignments in FDMA. Consequently, compared with FDMA networks, TDMA networks have more flexibility in reassigning channels, and the changes can be made more quickly and easily. A number of methods are available for providing traffic flexibility with TDMA. The burst length assigned to a station may be varied as the traffic demand varies. A central control station may be employed by the network to control the assignment of burst lengths to each participating station. Alternatively, each station may determine its own burstlength requirements and assign these in accordance with a prearranged network discipline. As an alternative to burst-length variation, the burst length may be kept constant and the number of bursts per frame used by a given station varied as demand requires. In one proposed system (CCIR Report 708, 1982), the frame length is fixed at 13.5 ms. The basic burst time slot is 62.5 s, and stations in the network transmit information bursts varying in discrete steps over the range 0.5 ms (8 basic bursts) to 4.5 ms (72 basic bursts) per frame. Demand assignment for speech channels takes advantage of the intermittent nature of speech, as described in the following section.
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