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Assembly details of a planar array. (a) electromechanical tracking, (b) combined electromechanical and electronic tracking, (c) electronic tracking. (Courtesy of Michael Parnes. Source: http:/ /www.ascor. eltech.ru/ ascor15.htm)
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Phase shifters Amplifiers Antennas A
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(a) Active, and (b) passive array configura-
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tions.
Electronic scanning can be achieved in one of several ways. The phase shift coefficient of a transmission line is given by 2 >l , where l is the wavelength of the signal passing along the line. A section of transmission line of length l introduces a phase lag (the output lags the input) of amount l (6.43)
Phase shift can be achieved by changing either l or . The concept of changing the length l is illustrated in Fig. 6.35. Making the shorter
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Input
Output
A transmission line phase shifter.
length the reference line, the phase shift obtained in switching from one to the other is (l1 l2) (6.44)
It will be seen that the switched line phase shifter requires a double pole single throw (DPST) switch at each end. Several types of switches have been utilized in practical designs, including PIN diodes, field effect transistors (FETs) and micro-electro-mechanical (MEM) switches. In a PIN diode, the p-type semiconductor region is separated from the n-type region by an intrinsic region (hence the name PIN). At frequencies below about 100 MHz, the diode behaves as a normal rectifying diode. Above this frequency, the stored charge in the intrinsic region prevents rectification from occurring and the diode conducts in both directions. The diode resistance is inversely related to the stored charge, which in turn is controlled by a steady bias voltage. With full forward bias the diode appears as a short circuit, and with full reverse bias the diode ceases to conduct. In effect the diode behaves as a switch. In practice PIN diode switches are usually wire-bonded into the phase changer, this being referred to as a microwave integrated circuit (MIC). The wire bond introduces a parasitic inductance which sets an upper frequency limit, although they have been used at frequencies beyond 18 GHz. Two diodes are required for each DPST switch. Metal semiconductor field effect transistors (MESFETs) are also widely used as microwave switches. In the MESFET, the charge in the channel between the drain and source electrodes is controlled by the bias voltage applied to the gate electrode. The channel can be switched between a
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highly conducting (ON) state and a highly resistive (OFF) state. MESFETs utilize gallium arsenide (GaAs) substrates, and can be constructed along with the line elements as an integrated circuit, forming what is known as a monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC). (MMICs may also contain other active circuits such as amplifiers and oscillators). Figure 6.36 shows four MESFETS integrated into a switched line phase shifter. The MEM switch is a small ON/OFF type switch that is actuated by electrostatic forces. In one form, a cantilever gold beam is suspended over a control electrode, these two elements forming an air-spaced capacitor. The dimensions of the beam are typically in the range of a few hundred microns (1 micron, abbreviated 1 m is 10 6 meters) with an air gap of a few microns. The RF input is connected to one end of the beam, which makes contact with an output electrode when the beam is pulled down. The pull down action occurs as a result of the electrostatic force arising when a direct voltage is applied between the control electrode and the beam. The voltage is in the order of 75 V, but little current is drawn. The power required to activate the switch depends on the number of cycles per second and the capacitance. In one example (see Reid, 2005), a voltage of 75 V, capacitance of 0.5 pF and a switching frequency of 10 kHz resulted in a power requirement of 14 W. A MEM switch can also be constructed where the beam, fixed at both ends, forms an air bridge across the control electrode (Brown, 1998). The top surface of the control electrode has a thin dielectric coating. The electrostatic force deflects the beam causing it to clamp down on the dielectric coating. The capacitance formed by the beam, dielectric coating,
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