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Orbital correction is carried out by command from the TT&C earth station, which monitors the satellite position. East-west and northsouth station-keeping maneuvers are usually carried out using the same thrusters as are used for attitude control. Figure 7.9 shows typical latitude and longitude variations for the Canadian Anik-C3 satellite which remain after station-keeping corrections are applied. Satellite altitude also will show variations of about 0.1 percent of the nominal geostationary height. If, for sake of argument, this is taken as 36,000 km, the total variation in the height is 72 km. A C-band satellite therefore can be anywhere within a box bound by this height and the 0.1 tolerances on latitude and longitude. Approximating the geostationary radius as 42,164 km (see Sec. 3.1), an angle of 0.2 subtends an arc of approximately 147 km. Thus both the latitude and longitude sides of the box are 147 km. The situation is sketched in Fig. 7.10, which also shows the relative beamwidths of a 30-m and a 5-m antenna. As shown by Eq. (6.33), the 3-dB beamwidth of a 30-m antenna is about 0.12 , and of a 5-m antenna, about 0.7 at 6 GHz. Assuming 38,000 km (typical) for the slant range, the diameter of the 30-m beam at the satellite will be about 80 km. This beam does not encompass the whole
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Typical satellite motion. (Courtesy of Telesat, Canada, 1983.)
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Figure 7.10 The rectangular box shows the positional limits for a satellite in geostationary orbit in relation to beams from a 30-m and a 5-m antenna.
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of the box and therefore could miss the satellite. Such narrow-beam antennas therefore must track the satellite. The diameter of the 5-m antenna beam at the satellite will be about 464 km, and this does encompass the box, so tracking is not required. The positional uncertainty of the satellite also introduces an uncertainty in propagation time, which can be a significant factor in certain types of communications networks. By placing the satellite in an inclined orbit, the north-south stationkeeping maneuvers may be dispensed with. The savings in weight achieved by not having to carry fuel for these maneuvers allows the communications payload to be increased. The satellite is placed in an inclined orbit of about 2.5 to 3 , in the opposite sense to that produced by drift. Over a period of about half the predicted lifetime of the mission, the orbit will change to equatorial and then continue to increase in inclination. However, this arrangement requires the use of tracking antennas at certain ground stations. 7.5 Thermal Control Satellites are subject to large thermal gradients, receiving the sun s radiation on one side while the other side faces into space. In addition, thermal radiation from the earth and the earth s albedo, which is the
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fraction of the radiation falling on earth which is reflected, can be significant for low-altitude earth-orbiting satellites, although it is negligible for geostationary satellites. Equipment in the satellite also generates heat which has to be removed. The most important consideration is that the satellite s equipment should operate as nearly as possible in a stable temperature environment. Various steps are taken to achieve this. Thermal blankets and shields may be used to provide insulation. Radiation mirrors are often used to remove heat from the communications payload. The mirrored thermal radiator for the Hughes HS 376 satellite can be seen in Fig. 7.1 and in Fig. 7.6. These mirrored drums surround the communications equipment shelves in each case and provide good radiation paths for the generated heat to escape into the surrounding space. One advantage of spinning satellites compared with body-stabilized is that the spinning body provides an averaging of the temperature extremes experienced from solar flux and the cold background of deep space. In order to maintain constant temperature conditions, heaters may be switched on (usually on command from ground) to make up for the heat reduction which occurs when transponders are switched off. The INTELSAT VI satellite used heaters to maintain propulsion thrusters and line temperatures (Pilcher, 1982). 7.6 TT&C Subsystem The TT&C subsystem performs several routine functions aboard the spacecraft. The telemetry, or telemetering, function could be interpreted as measurement at a distance. Specifically, it refers to the overall operation of generating an electrical signal proportional to the quantity being measured and encoding and transmitting this to a distant station, which for the satellite is one of the earth stations. Data which are transmitted as telemetry signals include attitude information such as that obtained from sun and earth sensors; environmental information such as the magnetic field intensity and direction, the frequency of meteorite impact, and so on; and spacecraft information such as temperatures, power supply voltages, and stored-fuel pressure. Certain frequencies have been designated by international agreement for satellite telemetry transmissions. During the transfer and drift orbital phases of the satellite launch, a special channel is used along with an omnidirectional antenna. Once the satellite is on station, one of the normal communications transponders may be used along with its directional antenna, unless some emergency arises which makes it necessary to switch back to the special channel used during the transfer orbit. Telemetry and command may be thought of as complementary functions. The telemetry subsystem transmits information about the satellite
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