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Communications subsystem functional diagram for Morelos. (Courtesy of Hughes Aircraft Company Space and Communications Group.)
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As mentioned, the satellites are part of the Hughes 376 series, illustrated in Figs. 7.1 and 7.6. A 180-cm-diameter circular reflector is used for the C band. This forms part of a dual-polarization antenna, with separate C-band feeds for horizontal and vertical polarizations. Morelos provided the C-band footprint pattern shown in Fig. 7.25a. The Morelos K-band reflector was elliptical in shape, with axes measuring 150 by 91 cm. It had its own feed array, producing a footprint which closely matched the contours of the Mexican land mass, as shown
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(a) C-band and (b) K-band transmit coverage for Morelos. (Courtesy of Hughes Aircraft Company Space and Communications Group.)
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in Fig. 7.25b. The K-band reflector was tied to the C-band reflector, and onboard tracking of a C-band beacon transmitted from the Tulancingo TT&C station ensured precise pointing of the antennas. On December 5, 1998 the SATMEX-5 was launched, with an expected life of 15 years. SATMEX-5 is a Hughes 601HP, which is a high-powered
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version of the Hughes 601 satellite illustrated in Fig. 7.2. The antenna footprints have been expanded to cover the whole American continent. In the Ku-band coverage area it will be possible to receive direct-tohome (DTH) television broadcasts on antennas 60 cm diameter or less. SATMEX-5 occupies the 116.8 W slot on the geostationary orbit. 7.10 Anik-Satellites The Anik series of satellites are designed to provide communications services in Canada as well as cross-border services with the United States. Early satellites such as Anik C and D were both Boeing 376 models. Anik-E was the first of the body-stabilized satellites used in the series, a dual-band satellite which had an equivalent capacity of 56 television channels, or more than 50,000 telephone circuits. Attitude control was of the momentum-bias, three-axes-stabilized type, and solar sails were used to provide power, the capacity being 3450 W at summer solstice and 3700 W at vernal equinox. Four NiH2 batteries provided power during eclipse. Although the Anik-E has been superseded by the Anik-F series, the Anik-E configuration as shown in Fig. 7.26 provides
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Anik-E spacecraft configuration. (Courtesy of Telesat Canada.)
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Anik-E C-band transponder functional block diagram. (Courtesy of Telesat
Canada.)
a good illustration of the body-stabilized type of satellite, and Fig. 7.27 shows a typical C-band transponder set-up. This is seen to use solid-state power amplifiers (SSPAs) which offer significant improvement in reliability and weight saving over traveling-wave tube amplifiers. The antennas are fed through a broadband feeder network (BFN) to illuminate the large reflectors shown in Fig. 7.26. National, as distinct from regional, coverage is provided at C band. The TWTAs aboard a satellite also may be switched to provide redundancy, as illustrated in Fig. 7.28. The scheme shown is termed a 4-for-2 redundancy, meaning that four channels are provided with two redundant amplifiers. For example, examination of the table in Fig. 7.28 shows that channel 1A has amplifier 2 as its primary amplifier, and amplifiers 1 and 3 can be switched in as backup amplifiers by ground command. 7.11 Advanced Tiros-N Spacecraft Tiros is an acronym for Television and Infra-Red Observational Satellite. As described in Chap. 1, Tiros is a polar-orbiting satellite, the primary mission of which is to gather and transmit earth environmental data down to its earth stations. Although its payload differs fundamentally from the communications-relay-type payload, much of the bus equipment is similar. Table 1.7 lists the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) spacecraft used in the Advanced TIROS-N (ATN)
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CHANNEL TWTA PRIMARY BACKUP
2 1 or 3
3 2 or 4
1 2 or 3
4 2 or 3
A 4-for-2 redundancy switching arrangement. (Courtesy of Telesat Canada,
1983.)
program. The general features of these spacecraft are described in Schwalb (1982a, 1982b), and current information can be obtained at the NOAA Web site http://www.noaa.gov/. The main features of the NOAA KLM spacecraft are shown in Fig. 7.29, and the physical and orbital characteristics are given in Table 7.1. Three Ni-Cd batteries supply power while the spacecraft is in darkness. The relatively short lifetime of these spacecraft results largely from the effects of atmospheric drag present at the low orbital altitudes. Attitude control of the NOAA spacecraft is achieved through the use of three reaction wheels similar to the arrangement shown in Fig. 7.8. A fourth, spare wheel is carried, angled at 54.7 to each of the three orthogonal axes. The spare reaction wheel is normally idle but is activated in the event of failure of any of the other wheels. The 54.7 angle permits its torque to be resolved into components along each of the three main axes. As can be seen from Fig. 7.29, the antennas are omnidirectional, but attitude control is needed to maintain directivity for the earth sensors. These must be maintained within 0.2 of the local geographic reference (Schwalb, 1982a).
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