ssrs 2016 barcode Frequency spectra for the luminance and chrominance signals. in Software

Encode QR Code in Software Frequency spectra for the luminance and chrominance signals.

Frequency spectra for the luminance and chrominance signals.
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information. The chrominance signal subcarrier frequency has to be precisely controlled, and in the NTSC system it is held at 3.579545 MHz 10 Hz, which places the subcarrier frequency midway between the 227th and the 228th harmonics of the horizontal scanning rate (frequency). The luminance and chrominance signals are both characterized by spectra wherein the power spectral density occurs in groups which are centered about the harmonics of the horizontal scan frequency. Placing the chrominance subcarrier midway between the 227th and 228th horizontal-scan harmonics of the luminance-plus-synchronization signals causes the luminance and the chrominance signals to be interleaved in the spectrum of the composite NTSC signal. This interleaving is most apparent in the range from about 3.0 to 4.1 MHz. The presence of the chrominance signal causes high-frequency modulation of the luminance signal and produces a very fine stationary dot-matrix pattern in the picture areas of high color saturation. To prevent this, most of the cheaper TV receivers limit the luminance channel video bandwidth to about 2.8 to 3.1 MHz. More expensive high resolution receivers employ a comb filter to remove most of the chrominance signal from the luminance-channel signal while still maintaining about a 4-MHz luminance-channel video bandwidth. Because the subcarrier is suppressed in the modulation process, a subcarrier frequency and phase reference carrier must be transmitted to allow the I and Q baseband chrominance signals to be demodulated at the receiver. This reference signal is transmitted in the form of bursts of 8 to 11 cycles of the phase-shifted subcarrier, transmitted on the backporch of the horizontal blanking pulse. These bursts are transmitted toward the end of each line sync period, part of the line sync pulse being suppressed to accommodate them. One line waveform including the synchronization signals is shown in Fig. 9.6.
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One line of waveform for a color TV signal.
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Figure 9.7 shows in block schematic form the NTSC system. The TV camera contains three separate camera tubes, one for each of the colors red, blue, and green. It is known that colored light can be synthesized by additive mixing of red, blue, and green light beams, these being the three primary light beam colors. For example, yellow is obtained by adding red and green light. (This process must be distinguished from the subtractive process of paint pigments, in which the primary pigment colors are red, blue, and yellow.)
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Figure 9.7 Generation of NTSC color TV signal. Matrix M converts the three color signals into the luminance and chrominance signals.
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Color filters are used in front of each tube to sharpen its response. In principle, it would be possible to transmit the three color signals and at the receiver reconstruct the color scene from them. However, this is not the best technical approach because such signals would not be compatible with monochrome television and would require extra bandwidth. Instead, three new signals are generated which do provide compatibility and do not require extra bandwidth. These are the luminance signal and the two chrominance signals which have been described already. The process of generating the new signals from the color signals is mathematically equivalent to having three equations in three variables and rearranging these in terms of three new variables which are linear combinations of the original three. The details are shown in the matrix M block of Fig. 9.7, and derivation of the equations from this is left as Prob. 9.9. At the receiver, the three color signals can be synthesized from the luminance and chrominance components. Again, this is mathematically equivalent to rearranging the three equations into their original form. The three color signals then modulate the electron beams which excite the corresponding color phosphors in the TV tube. The complete video signal is therefore a multiplexed baseband signal which extends from dc up to 4.2 MHz and which contains all the visual information plus synchronization signals. In conventional TV broadcasting, the aural signal is transmitted by a separate transmitter, as shown in Fig. 9.8a. The aural information is received by stereo microphones, split into (L R) and (L R) signals, where L stands for left and R for right. The (L R) signal is used to DSBSC modulate a subcarrier at 2fh (31.468 kHz). This DSBSC signal is then added to the (L R) signal and used to frequency modulate a separate transmitter whose rf carrier frequency is 4.5 MHz above the rf carrier frequency of the video transmitter. The outputs of these two transmitters may go to separate antennas or may be combined and fed into a single antenna, as is shown in Fig. 9.8a. The signal format for satellite analog TV differs from that of conventional TV, as shown in Fig. 9.8. To generate the uplink microwave TV signal to a communications satellite transponder channel, the composite video signal (going from 0 Hz to about 4.2 MHz for the North American NTSC standard) is added to two or three frequency modulation (FM) carriers at frequencies of 6.2, 6.8, and/or 7.4 MHz, which carry audio information. This composite FDM signal is then, in turn, used to frequency modulate the uplink microwave carrier signal, producing a signal with an rf bandwidth of about 36 MHz. The availability of three possible audio signal carriers permits the transmission of stereo and/or multilingual audio over the satellite link. Figure 9.8b shows a block diagram of this system.
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