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Examples of binary data sources.
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In digital terminology, a binary symbol is known as a binit from binary digit. The information carried by a binit is, in most practical situations, equal to a unit of information known as a bit. Thus it has become common practice to refer to binary symbols as bits rather than binits, and this practice will be followed here. The digital information is transmitted as a waveform, some of the more common waveforms used for binary encoding being shown in Fig. 10.2. These will be referred to as digital waveforms, although strictly speaking they are analog representations of the digital information being transmitted. The binary sequence shown in Fig. 10.2 is 1010111. Detailed reasons for the use of different waveforms will be found in most books on digital communications (see Bellamy, 1982). The duration of a bit is referred to as the bit period and is shown as Tb. The bit rate is given by Rb 1 Tb (10.1)
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With Tb in seconds, the bit rate will be in bits per second, usually denoted by b/s. Figure 10.2a shows a unipolar waveform, meaning that the waveform excursions from zero are always in the same direction, either positive or negative. They are shown as positive A in Fig. 10.2a. Because it has a dc component, the unipolar waveform is unsuitable for use on telephone lines and radio networks, including satellite links. Figure 10.2b shows a polar waveform, which utilizes positive and negative polarities. (In Europe this is referred to as a bipolar waveform, but
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Figure 10.2 Examples of binary waveforms used for encoding digital data: (a) unipolar NRZ; (b) polar NRZ; (c) polar RZ; (d) split phase or Manchester; (e) alternate mark inversion (AMI).
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the term bipolar in North American usage is reserved for a specific waveform, described later). For a long, random sequence of 1s and 0s, the dc component would average out to zero. However, long sequences of like symbols result in a gradual drift in the dc level, which creates problems at the receiver decoder. Also, the decoding process requires knowledge of the bit timing, which is derived from the zero crossovers in the waveform, and these are obviously absent in long strings of like symbols. Both the unipolar and polar waveforms shown in Fig. 10.2a and b are known as non-return-to-zero (NRZ) waveforms. This is so because the waveform does not return to the zero baseline at any point during the bit period. Figure 10.2c shows an example of a polar return-to-zero (RZ) waveform. Here, the waveform does return to the zero baseline in the middle of the bit period, so transitions will always occur even within a long string of
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like symbols, and bit timing can be extracted. However, dc drift still occurs with long strings of like symbols. In the split-phase or Manchester encoding shown in Fig. 10.2d, a transition between positive and negative levels occurs in the middle of each bit. This ensures that transitions will always be present so that bit timing can be extracted, and because each bit is divided equally between positive and negative levels, there is no dc component. A comparison of the frequency bandwidths required for digital waveforms can be obtained by considering the waveforms which alternate at the highest rate between the two extreme levels. These will appear as squarewaves. For the basic polar NRZ waveform of Fig. 10.2b, this happens when the sequence is . . . 101010 . . . The periodic time of such a squarewave is 2Tb, and the fundamental frequency component is 1/2Tb. For the split-phase encoding, the squarewave with the highest repetition frequency occurs with a long sequence of like symbols such as . . . 1111111 . . ., as shown in Fig. 10.2d. The periodic time of this squarewave is Tb, and hence the fundamental frequency component is twice that of the basic polar NRZ. Thus the split-phase encoding requires twice the bandwidth compared with that for the basic polar NRZ, while the bit rate remains unchanged. The utilization of bandwidth, measured in bits per second per hertz, is therefore less efficient. An alternate mark inversion (AMI) code is shown in Fig. 10.2e. Here, the binary 0s are at the zero baseline level, and the binary 1s alternate in polarity. In this way, the dc level is removed, while bit timing can be extracted easily, except when a long string of zeros occurs. Special techniques are available to counter this last problem. The highest pulse-repetition frequency occurs with a long string of . . . 111111 . . . the periodic time of which is 2Tb, the same as the waveform of Fig. 10.2b. The AMI waveform is also referred to as a bipolar waveform in North America. Bandwidth requirements may be reduced by utilizing multilevel digital waveforms. Figure 10.3a shows a polar NRZ signal for the sequence 11010010. By arranging the bits in groups of two, four levels can be used. For example, these may be
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