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Sampling instant (b)
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Figure 10.9 (a) Pulse ringing. (b) Sampling to avoid ISI.
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spectrum is known as the raised cosine response, which is shown in Fig. 10.10. Although a theoretical model, it can be approached closely with practical designs. The raised cosine spectrum is described by 1 psf 2 f1d b Vs f d 5 0.5 a1 1 cos B 2 f1 0 for f , f1 for f1 , f , B for B , f
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(10.9)
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The frequencies f1 and B are determined by the symbol rate and a design parameter known as the rolloff factor, denoted here by the symbol . The rolloff factor is a specified parameter in the range 0 In terms of 1 (10.10)
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and the symbol rate, the bandwidth B is given by B 1 2 Rsym (10.11)
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The raised cosine response.
and f1 1 2 Rsym (10.12)
For binary transmission, the symbol rate simply becomes the bit rate. Thus, for the T1 signal, the required baseband bandwidth is B 1 2 0.772(1 1.544 ) MHz 106 (10.13)
For a rolloff factor of unity, the bandwidth for the T1 system becomes 1.544 MHz. Although a satellite link requires the use of a modulated carrier wave, the same overall baseband response is needed for the avoidance of ISI. Fortunately, the channel for a satellite link does not introduce frequency distortion, so the pulse shaping can take place in the transmit and receive filters. The modulation of the baseband signal onto a carrier is discussed in the following section. 10.6 Digital Carrier Systems For transmission to and from a satellite, the baseband digital signal must be modulated onto a microwave carrier. In general, the digital baseband signals may be multilevel (M-ary), requiring multilevel modulation methods. The main binary modulation methods are illustrated in Fig. 10.11. They are defined as follows: On-off keying (OOK), also known as amplitude-shift keying (ASK). The binary signal in this case is unipolar and is used to switch the carrier on and off.
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Some binary digital modulation formats.
Frequency-shift keying (FSK). The binary signal is used to frequency modulate the carrier, one frequency being used for a binary 1 and another for a binary 0. These are also referred to as the mark-space frequencies. Binary phase-shift keying (BPSK). Polarity changes in the binary signal are used to produce 180 changes in the carrier phase. This may be achieved through the use of double-sideband, suppressed-carrier modulation (DSBSC), with the binary signal as a polar NRZ waveform. In effect, the carrier amplitude is multiplied by a 1 pulsed waveform. When the binary signal is 1, the carrier sinusoid is unchanged, and when it is 1, the carrier sinusoid is changed in phase by 180 . BPSK is also known as phase-reversal keying (PRK). The binary signal may be filtered at baseband before modulation, to
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limit the sidebands produced, and as part of the filtering needed for the reduction of ISI, as described in Sec. 10.5. The resulting modulated waveform is sketched in Fig. 10.11. Differential phase-shift keying (DPSK). This is phase-shift keying in which the phase of the carrier is changed only if the current bit differs from the previous one. A reference bit must be sent at the start of message, but otherwise the method has the advantage of not requiring a reference carrier at the receiver for demodulation. Quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK). This is phase-shift keying for a 4-symbol waveform, adjacent phase shifts being equispaced by 90 . The concept can be extended to more than four levels, when it is denoted as MPSK for M-ary phase-shift keying. Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). This is also a multilevel (meaning higher than binary) modulation method in which the amplitude and the phase of the carrier are modulated. Although all the methods mentioned find specific applications in practice, only BPSK and QPSK will be described here, since many of the general properties can be illustrated through these methods, and they are widely used.
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