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72 BOOKKEEPING AND ACCOUNTING
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Solved Problem 10.1 The inventory information of a product is given below: Jan. 1 Feb. 16 Mar. 4 Oct. 15 Inventory Purchase Purchase Purchase 12 units 8 units 15 units 10 units \$15 16 18 20
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After taking a physical count, we nd that we have 14 units on hand. De termine the ending inventory cost by the (a) FIFO method, (b) LIFO method and (c) weighted average. Solution: (a) FIFO method Most recent purchase (10/15) Next most recent purchase (3/4) Ending Inventory (b) LIFO method Beginning Inventory Next Purchase Ending Inventory (c) Weighted Average \$778 / 45 units = \$17.29 per unit 14 units on hand times \$17.29 per unit = \$242.06 ending inventory Solved Problem 10.2 Determine the gross pro t under the (a) LIFO and (b) FIFO assumptions, given the following information: Sales Goods available for sale Ending Inventory (under LIFO) Ending Inventory (under FIFO) \$40,000 12,000 6,500 3,500 12 units @ \$15 = \$180 2 units @ 16 = 32 14 \$212 10 units @ \$20 = \$200 4 units @ \$18 = 72 14 \$272
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CHAPTER 10: Costing Merchandise Inventory Solution: (a) LIFO method Sales Cost of Goods Sold: Goods Available Less Ending Inventory Cost of Goods Sold Gross Pro t (b) FIFO method Sales Cost of Goods Sold: Goods Available Less Ending Inventory Cost of Goods Sold Gross Pro t \$40,000 \$12,000 3,500 8,500 \$31,500 \$40,000 \$12,000 6,500 5,500 \$34,500
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Cash Discounts
Markup
Selling Price as a Basis:
Computing Percent Markup Cost as a Basis Markdowns Turnover Ratios for Inventory Number of Days Sales in Inventory Summary Solved Problems
When merchandise is offered for sale by manufacturers or wholesalers, a list or catalog price is set for each item. This represents the price that the ultimate consumer will pay for the item.
CHAPTER 11: Pricing Merchandise
Rather than printing separate prices for each of the potential purchasers, the seller gives the var ious classes of buyers a separate discount sheet, de tailing the discount offered to his or her class of purchaser. Thus, the trade discount is not a true dis count but is considered to be an adjustment of the price. The use of a list or catalog price also cuts down on printing. If the seller wishes to change the price offered to the wholesaler or retailer, a revised discount schedule, using the original list or catalog price, would be sent. The list or catalog price also provides the retailer with a suggested selling price for the item. The price the buyer pays for the item is com puted by multiplying the list or catalog price by the discount rate and then subtracting this discount from the list or catalog price.
Chain Discounts
Rather than give varying increasing single discounts to different classes of purchasers, some companies use chain discounts. These have the ad vantage of appearing to be higher and emphasizing to the buyer the fact that she or he receives more than one discount. When using chain discounts, there are two methods that may be used to compute the net cost price: 1. Determine a single equivalent discount and then proceed to compute the net cost price. This method is also useful for companies that wish to compare varying discount policies of competing companies. To com pute an equivalent discount, multiply the complements of each of the dis counts (100 percent discount) together and subtract the result from 100 percent. For example, the single discount equivalent of 10 percent and 20 percent is computed as: Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 (100% 10%) multiplied by (100% 20%) 0.90 multiplied by 0.80 = 0.72 Equivalent discount = 100% 72% = 28%
2. The net cost price can be computed directly by multiplying the list price by the complement of each of the discounts in the series. It does not make any difference in what order the discounts are arranged.