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CHAPTER 4: Consumption, Investment, Exports and Government
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productive capacity and there is no need to expand productive capacity when utilization of existing capacity is declining. c. Investment demand should shift downward. Increased vacancy rates for existing commercial buildings indicate that there will be dif culty selling newly constructed commercial real estate. Thus, commercial real estate construction will decline. Solved Problem 4.4 What is the difference between a lump-sum tax and an income tax Solution: A lump-sum tax is a xed-sum tax that is unrelated to income. An income tax is related directly to earned income. In the case of a proportional income tax the government collects a xed percent of income earned, while for a progressive income tax the rate of taxation increases with the level of income. Lump-sum taxes and proportional and progressive income taxes are illustrated in Figure 4-3. Note that lump-sum taxes remain at \$1,000 as income increases from \$10,000 to \$11,000. When there is a 10 percent proportional income tax rate, tax payments increase from \$1,000 to \$1,100 as income increases from \$10,000 to \$11,000. When the tax rate is 10 percent on the rst \$10,000 earned and 20 percent on income greater than \$10,000, tax payments increase from \$1,000 to \$1,200 when income increases from \$10,000 to \$11,000.
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Traditional Keynesian Approach to Equilibrium Output
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Keynesian Model of Equilibrium Output Income-Expenditure Model of Equilibrium Output Leakage-Injection Model of Equilibrium Output The Multiplier Changes in Equilibrium Output When Aggregate Supply Is Positively Sloped
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CHAPTER 5: Keynesian Approach to Equilibrium Output
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John Maynard Keynes developed the framework for modern-day macroeconomics in the 1930s. Because there was considerable unemployment at that time, he assumed that changes in aggregate demand have no effect upon the price level as long as output is below the full-employment level, i.e., as long as aggregate supply is horizontal. A positive GDP gap where real GDP is below potential GDP is identi ed as a recessionary gap and is the distance between equilibrium output and full-employment output on an AD-AS graph. An in ationary gap exists when there is excessive aggregate spending, such that aggregate demand intersects the Keynesian aggregate supply curve in the positively sloped region beyond full-employment output. This results in an increase in the price level.
Income-Expenditure Model of Equilibrium Output
The Keynesian model of output can be expressed as a circular ow of income and output between businesses and individuals. In a capitalist, freemarket economy, individuals own, directly or indirectly, the economy s economic resources (land, labor, and capital). Businesses hire resources to produce output and pay individuals a money income for the services of these resources in the form of wages, rent, interest, and pro ts. Individuals in turn spend their money income and purchase output. Assuming no supply constraints (when aggregate supply is horizontal), we can expect businesses to supply output as long as the receipts from selling output equal the payments made by businesses to the owners of economic resources and the owners of the business rms.
48 PRINCIPLES OF ECONOMICS
Note!
The circular ow of income and output helps to explain why we should all study economics because one person s actions have repercussions for others.
The circular ow of income and expenditure can be used to nd the economy s equilibrium level of output. The market value of nal output for a hypothetical economy appears in column 1 of Table 5.1. Assuming a capitalist system with no government spending or taxes, the value of output in column 1 is also the disposable income of individuals since individuals receive all the payments made to the factors of production. Aggregate spending in column 5 is the sum of consumer spending (column 2), investment spending (column 3), and net exports (column 4). Note that consumer spending increases with the level of output and thus the level of personal disposable income, as discussed in 4. Investment and net exports are assumed here to be unrelated to the output level and remain constant. The equilibrium level of output is \$800 billion since this is the only level of production at which output equals aggregate spending. This equilibrium condition is depicted in colTable 5.1 (in Billions of \$)