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int QRCode Recognizer In None Using Barcode Control SDK for Software Control to generate, create, read, scan barcode image in Software applications. Quick Response Code Creator In None Using Barcode drawer for Software Control to generate, create QRCode image in Software applications. In C++ a declaration can be placed anywhere in a program, but it must be declared before it is used. As shown in Ex. 1.3, variables can be assigned an initial value when they are declared. Simple Statements and the Assignment Operator We have seen the use of the assignment operator (=). The assignment itself is an expression with a value. The value of the expression x = 22 is 22. Like any other value it can be used in another assignment: y = (x = 22); is an example of a chained assignment. First 22 is assigned to x and then the value of the assignment assignment 22 is assigned to y. Usually compound assignments are written without the parentheses. Simple Arithmetic Operations An operator is a symbol that "operates" on one or more expressions, producing a value. We have already encountered the output operator << and the assignment operator =. Some of the simplest operators are those that do arithmetic. These operate on numeric types to produce another numeric type. For Reading QR Code JIS X 0510 In None Using Barcode decoder for Software Control to read, scan read, scan image in Software applications. QRCode Drawer In C# Using Barcode drawer for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create QR Code image in VS .NET applications. < previous page
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Painting Code 128 Code Set B In Java Using Barcode creation for Java Control to generate, create Code 128 Code Set A image in Java applications. Make GS1  13 In Java Using Barcode creator for Android Control to generate, create EAN13 image in Android applications. example, m + n produces the sum of m and n and n produces the negation of n. Six operators are summarized in the following table. Barcode Scanner In Visual Basic .NET Using Barcode Control SDK for .NET framework Control to generate, create, read, scan barcode image in Visual Studio .NET applications. DataMatrix Generator In None Using Barcode encoder for Word Control to generate, create ECC200 image in Office Word applications. Operator
Description
Example
Result for m=38, n=5 43 33 38 190 7 3 + * / % Add Subtract Negate Multiply Divide Remainder
m + n m  n m m * n m / n m % n
Note that 38/5 =7 and 38%5 =3. These two operations provide complete information about the ordinary division of 38 by 5: 38/5=7.6. The integer quotient 7 (38/5) and the integer remainder 3 (38%5) can be recombined with the dividend 38 and divisor 5 in the following relation: 7*5+3 = 38. The integer quotient and remainder operators are more complicated if the integers are not positive. Of course, the divisor should never be zero. But if either is negative, m/n always gives the same result; m%n gives different results on different machines. Operator Precedence and Associativity Don't fight the system! Know the precedence of Operations! C++ has a rich repertoire of operators. (Appendix A lists all 55 of them.) Since an expression may include several operators, it is important to know in what order the evaluations of the operators occurs. We are already familiar with the precedence of ordinary arithmetic operators: the *, /, and % operators have higher precedence than the + and  operators; i.e., they are evaluated first. For example, < previous page
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423*5 is evaluated as 42 (3*5) = 4215 = 27 Moreover, all the arithmetic operators have higher precedence than the assignment and output operators. For example, the statement n= 42 3*5; will assign the value 27 to n. First the operator * is invoked to evaluate *5, then the  operator is invoked to evaluate 4215, and then the operator = is invoked to assign 27 to n. Part of Appendix B Op * / % + << = Simple assignment Description Negate Multiply Divide Remainder Add Subtract Bit shift left, output Prec 15 13 13 13 12 12 11 2 Assoc Right Left Left Left Left Left Left Right Arity Unary Binary Binary Binary Binary Binary Binary Binary Example n m*n m/n m%n m+n mn cout <<n m=n It lists eight operators that apply to integer variables. They fall into five distinct precedence levels. For example, the negate operator  has precedence level 15, and the binary multiply operator * has precedence level 13, so negate is evaluated before multiply. Thus the expression m*n is evaluated as m*(n). Assignment operators have lower precedence than nearly all other operators, so they are usually performed last. The column labeled "Associativity" tells what happens when sever al different operators with the same precedence level appear in the same expression. For example, + and  both have precedence level 12 and are left associative, so the operators are evaluated from left to right. For example, in the expression 85+4 first 5 is subtracted from 8, and then 4 is added to that sum: (85)+4 = 3+4 = 7. The column labeled "Arity" lists whether the operator is unary or binary. Unary means that the operator takes only one operand. For example, the negate operator  is unary. Binary means that the operator takes two operands. For example, the add operator + is binary.

