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Now all five data members defined in the Person class are accessible from its Student subclass, as seen by the following test driver: Student x("Beth Jones", x.setDOB(7, 10, 1983); x.setDOE(8, 26, 2001); x. setDOD(7, 4, 2065); x.printName(); cout <<"\n Born: "; cout <<"\n Sex: "; cout <<"\nEntered: "; cout <<endl; 0, "219360061");
x.printDOB(); x.printSex(); x.printDOM();
Beth Jones Born: July 10, 1983 Sex: female Entered: August 26, 2001
The protected access category is a balance between private and public categories: private members are accessible only from within the class itself and its friend classes; protected members are accessible from within the class itself, its friend classes, its derived classes, and their friend classes; public members are accessible from anywhere. In general, protected is used instead of private whenever it is anticipated that a subclass might be defined for the class.
Note! A subclass inherits public and protected members of its base class. From the subclass' view, public and protected members of its base class appear as though they were declared in the subclass.
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If class y is derived from class x, public member a of class x is inherited as a public member of y, and the protected member b of class x is inherited as a protected member of y. But the private member c of class x is not inherited by y. Overriding and Dominating Inherited Members If Y is a subclass of X, then Y objects inherit the public and protected member data and methods of X. In the Person, the name data and printName ( ) method are also members of Student. Sometimes, you might want to define a local version of an inherited member. For example, if a is a data member of X and if Y is a subclass of X, then you could also define a separate data member named a for Y. In this case, we say that the a defined in Y dominates the a defined in X. A reference y. a for an object y of class Y will access the a in Y instead of the a in X. To access the a defined in X, one would use y. x: :a. The same rule applies to methods. If f ( ) is defined in X and another f ( ) with the same signature is defined in Y, then y. f ( ) invokes the latter, and y. X: : f ( ) invokes the former. In this case, the local function y. f ( ) overrides the f ( ) function defined in X unless it is invoked as y.X::f ( ).
You Need to Know In an inheritance hierarchy, default constructors and destructors behave differently from other methods. Each constructor invokes its parent constructor before executing itself, and each destructor invokes its parent destructor after executing itself.
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private Access versus protected Access The difference between private and protected class members is that subclasses can access protected members of a parent class but not private members. Since protected is more flexible, when would you want to make members private The answer lies at the heart of the principle of information hiding: restrict access now to facilitate changes later. If you think you may want to modify the implementation of a data member in the future, then declaring it private will obviate the need to make any corollary changes in subclasses. virtual Functions and Polymorphism One of the most powerful features of C++ is that it allows objects of different types to respond differently to the same function call. This is called polymorphism and it is achieved by means of virtual functions. Polymorphism is rendered possible by the fact that a pointer to a base class instance may also point to any subclass instance: class X { . . . } class Y:public X {// Y is a subclass of x . . . } main() { X* p; // p - pointer to base class X objects Y y; p = &y; // p points to subclass Y objects } If p has type X*, then p can also point to any object whose type is a subclass of X. Even when p is pointing to an instance of a subclass Y, its type is still X*. So an expression like p->f() would invoke the function f() defined in the base class. Recall that p->f() is an alternative notation for *p.f(). This invokes the member function f() of the object to which p points. But what if p is actually pointing to an object y of a subclass of the class to which p points, and what if that subclass Y has its own overriding version of f() Which f() gets executed: X::f() or Y::f() The answer is that p->f() will execute X::f() because p had type X*. The fact that p happens to be pointing at that moment to an instance of subclass Y is irrelevant; it's the statically defined type X* of p that nor-
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