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SOFTWARE DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT Successful computer software is produced in a sequence of stages that are typically managed by separate teams of developers. These stages are illustrated in Figure 1.1. The first stage is a recognition of the problem to be solved. In a corporate setting, this determination could come from market research. The second stage, which might be omitted as a formal process, is a study of whether the project is feasible. For example, do the development tools exist to produce the software In the third stage, a document is typically produced that specifies precisely what the software should do. This requirements document should have enough detail to be used as a standard when the completed software is tested. In the fourth stage, a thorough analysis is done before any effort or resources are spent designing and implementing the project. This could include a survey of comparable software already available and a cost-benefit analysis of the value of spending the anticipated resources. Once a decision has been made to proceed, the software design team works from the requirements document to design the software. This includes the specification of all the software components and their interrelationships. It may also require the specification of specialized algorithms that would be implemented in the software. The implementation consists of programmers coding the Figure 1.1 Software life cycle design to produce the software. The testing team attempts to ensure that the resulting software satisfies the requirements document. Failure at this point may require a redesign or even some fine-tuning of the requirements. Those eventualities are represented by the two feedback loops shown in Figure 1.1.
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Testing occurs at several levels. Individual classes and methods have to be tested separately, and then their success at working together must be verified. Finally, the product as a whole is tested against the requirements document. One final aspect of software development that is not shown in the figure is the maintenance process. After the software has been delivered, its developers remain obliged to maintain it with corrected versions, service packages, and even major revisions. Any major revision itself would follow the same life cycle steps. OBJECT-ORIENTED DESIGN One common approach to software design is a top-down design strategy that gradually breaks the problem down into smaller parts. This is also called step-wise refinement. It focuses on the functional aspects of the problem and the implementation of algorithms. This procedure-oriented design is common in scientific programming. In contrast, object-oriented design focuses on the data components of the software, organizing the design around their representatives. For example, an air traffic control system might be designed in terms of airplanes, airports, pilots, controllers, and other objects. The Java programming language is particularly well-suited for implementing object-oriented designs. All executable code in Java is organized into classes that represent objects. For this reason, Java is regarded as an object-oriented programming language. An object is a software unit that is produced according to a unique class specification. It is called an instance of its class, and the process of creating it is called instantiating the class. For example, this code instantiates the java.util.Date class:
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java.util.Date today = new java.util.Date(); The variable today is a reference to the object, as shown in
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Figure 1.2. Ignoring the distinction between a reference and the object to which it refers, we would also say today is the Figure 1.2 A Java object name of the java.util.Date object. A Java class consists of three kinds of members: fields, methods, and constructors. The fields hold the data for class objects, the methods hold the statements that are executed by the objects, and the constructors hold the code that initializes the objects fields. An object-oriented design specifies the classes that will be instantiated in the software. That design can be facilitated and illustrated by the Unified Modeling Language (UML). In UML, each class is represented by a rectangle with separate parts for listing the class s name, its fields, and its methods and constructors. Figure 1.3 shows a UML diagram for a Person class with four fields (name, id, sex, and dob), a constructor, and three methods (isAnAdult(), setDob(), and toString()). Each of the eight class members is prefaced with a visibility symbol: Figure 1.3 A UML diagram + means public # for protected - for private (Package visibility has no UML symbol.)
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